Journal of Berry Research - Volume Pre-press, issue Pre-press
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The main objective of the
Journal of Berry Research is to improve the knowledge about quality and production of berries to benefit health of the consumers and maintain profitable production using sustainable systems.
The objective will be achieved by focusing on four main areas of research and development:
1. From genetics to variety evaluation
2. Nursery production systems and plant quality control
3. Plant physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as cultural management
4. Health for the consumer: components and factors affecting berries' nutritional value
Specifically, the journal will cover berries (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, cranberry currants, etc.), as well as grapes and small soft fruit in general (e.g., kiwi fruit). It will publish research results covering all areas of plant breeding, including plant genetics, genomics, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, plant physiology, plant pathology and plant development, as well as results dealing with the chemistry and biochemistry of bioactive compounds contained in such fruits and their possible role in human health. Contributions detailing possible pharmacological, medical or therapeutic use or dietary significance will be welcomed in addition to studies regarding biosafety issues of genetically modified plants.
Journal of Berry Research will feature reviews, research articles, brief communications, position papers, letters and patent updates.
Abstract: Background: Phytotherapy has an important role in the functional gastrointestinal and motility disorder prevention and treatment. Objective: The aims of our study were to analyze the chemical composition and the antispasmodic activity of the dry black chokeberry ethanolic extract, waste extract and the juice in the isolated rat ileum. Methods: The anthocyanins and flavonoids quantification was carried out by the spectrophotometric method using the HPLC instrument. The study examined the influence of the chokeberry preparations and cyanidin-3-O -galactoside, the main anthocyanin compound, on the spontaneous, acetylcholine and KCl-induced ileum smooth muscle contraction, as well as on…the contractions induced by histamine, CaCl2 and BaCl2 and contractions in the presence of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME). Results: In all the examined preparations, the most abundant compounds were anthocyanins, especially cyanidin heterosides. The highest content of polyphenols and anthocyanins was found in the chokeberry waste extract. Among the chokeberry preparations, the ethanolic extract had the highest flavonoid concentration. The chokeberry preparations and cyanidin-3-O -galactoside in a concentration dependent manner significantly relaxed the rat ileum spontaneous and induced contractions. The results demonstrated that the nitric-oxide pathway was not involved in the relaxant activity of the chokeberry extracts and juice. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that the chokeberry preparations were able to relax contractions in the isolated rat ileum.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In Europe mulberry cultivation is attracting growing interest for the valuable nutraceutical properties of its fruit; however, mulberry orchards specialized in fruit production only are not very common, therefore an adequate harvesting technique has not been developed. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to evaluate an innovative harvesting system in terms of efficiency and labour required, and to monitor fruit losses. METHODS: Harvesting operations were recorded during inspections to the field during the fruit ripening season; chemical assessment on fruit quality and mechanical tests on the detachment force of fruits at different ripening stage…were carried out. RESULTS: We described the structure and functions of the innovative system, its harvesting capacity (kg h–1 ) in comparison to traditional methods, the related losses, and the quality of collected fruits. CONCLUSIONS: The innovative harvesting system requires a minimum of four workers, but it results in a two to three-fold increase of the hourly productivity per person. Furthermore, it is constructionally and functionally very simple and it does not require important initial or maintenance investments. Overall the system can save labour costs and contribute to spreading of moriculture for fruit production.
Keywords: Mulberry fruits, sorosis, harvesting system, harvest losses, detachment force
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Black mulberry fruits have high antioxidant capacity, exhibiting health protective properties. In order to exploit their entire dynamic though, elite genotypes must be vegetatively propagated. OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to assess the physiological, organoleptic, phytochemical and anti-carcinogenic (only of the best two genotypes) properties of eleven new black mulberry genotypes, compared to the elite hybrid Fengchisang and the possibility of easy asexual propagation through semi-hardwood and hardwood cuttings. METHODS: Fruits from eleven genotypes were analyzed for their organoleptic and physiological characteristics as well as for their total phenol, o-diphenol, flavonoid, flavanol, anthocyanin content and their…organic acid and sugar composition. The best two were also tested for anti-carcinogenic properties. Furthermore, the rooting potential of semi-hardwood and hardwood cuttings was also investigated. RESULTS: The genotypes differed regarding fruit characteristics and rooting potential. The principal component analysis lead to a grouping of genotypes, while one, ANS8, was grouped separately, exhibiting high antioxidant capacity and phenol content. ANS8 genotype reduced cancer cells viability more efficiently compared to Fengchisang. CONCLUSIONS: The ANS8 genotype exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, higher than Fengchisang and better anti-carcinogenic properties, which along with the ease of rooting, may become a valuable source of health promoting phytochemicals.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Murta, a native berry from southern Chile, has been used in Chilean folk medicine to treat inflammatory and infectious diseases among other ailments. OBJECTIVE: This work assessed the influence of different drying methods: freeze drying (FD), convective drying (CD), vacuum drying (VD), sun drying (SD), and infrared drying (IRD) on the antimicrobial activity of murta berries against four microbial species. METHODS: Murta berries were subjected to five drying methods. Measurement of bioactive compounds that include: phenolic compounds by HPLC, total flavonoid content by a spectrophotometric method; and anthocyanins by HPLC–MS. Determination of antioxidant capacity by…DPPH and ORAC methods and antimicrobial activity by means of agar well diffusion assay. RESULTS: Murta extracts obtained by FD and CD showed the highest antimicrobial activity, with Staphylococcus aureus the most susceptible species. Drying induced a significant loss of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity although minimal losses were observed in FD, CD and VD extracts. In these extracts, the abundance of bioactive compounds correlated with the antimicrobial activity. Eight phenolic compounds were identified in murta extracts where pyrogallol’s abundance increased in all dried samples. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that murta dried with FD, CD and VD have the highest potential to be used as a functional ingredient in the food industry.
Abstract: The winter planting system is based on the use of the bare-root plant. It is used extensively in many strawberry cultivation areas characterized by mild winters. Bare-root plants have disadvantages and plug plants represent a valid alternative to the traditional bare-root plant. This study, conducted in Southern Italy, investigated the changes in the fruiting cycle of bare-root and plug plants of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa ), with a focus on fruit quality. Bare root and plug plants for three strawberry genotypes were planted in fields and the differences in yield, quality traits and main bioactive compounds were evaluated. The…plants were grown in Scanzano Jonico – Basilicata region (Southern Italy). Yield per plant, fruit size, total soluble solids content, titratable acidity, flesh firmness, skin colour, antioxidant activity (TAC), total phenols (TPH), total anthocyanins (TACY), ascorbic acid content (AA) and phenolic profile were determined. The results confirmed that the start of the harvest for plug plants was significantly earlier than for bare-root plants and plug plants also had higher productivity. The fruit size of plug plants was initially larger than for bare root plants but became significantly smaller when the production flow decreased in May. Plant type did not affect flesh firmness, while the sugar content was lower in plug plants. The fruit colour brightness was higher for plug plants in the first part of the harvest but reduced significantly in the second part. TPH was lower for plug plants, compared to bare-root plants, in the first part of the harvest but higher in the second part, when the fruit size of plug plants decreased significantly. TACY showed a considerable variability and was more influenced by the genotype rather than by the type of plant. Also, TAC, being correlated with TPH, had higher values in plug plants in the second part of the harvest, coinciding with the decrease in size. The content of the most important classes of individual polyphenols (anthocyanins and ellagitannins) was on average higher in plug plants than in bare-root plants. In summary, the plug plant had an early yield start with a production concentrated in March and early April, which is suitable for Mediterranean areas, but the quality traits showed a lot of variability from year to year. Keywords:
Abstract: BACKGROUND: By acidity, Al3+ available form increases, being toxic for plants. Calcium amendments are widely used as an agronomic practice to reduce this effect. OBJECTIVE: To determine the gypsum application effect on leaf morphological and physiological features on three highbush blueberry cultivars growing in acid soil and toxic Al level. METHODS: Legacy and Brigitta, Al-resistant and Bluegold, Al-sensitive were grown in acid soil with 48% Al saturation and three gypsum concentrations (0.7, 1.4, and 2.8 g CaSO4 kg–1 ) for 30 days. Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements, photosynthesis, and photoprotective pigments were analyzed. Samples of…leaves and roots were harvested, and Al, Ca, and S concentrations, antioxidant activity (RSA), lipid peroxidation (LP), and leaf anatomy were determined. RESULTS: Gypsum decreased leaves and roots Al concentration in all cultivars. Higher Ca leaves concentration in cultivars was observed compared to roots under gypsum treatment. Aluminum damages were observed in leaf thickness, improving anatomic features in cultivars by gypsum as well as a reduction of LP without changes in RSA. Chlorophyll levels changed differentially according to the cultivar and CaSO4 dose, while antheraxanthin was higher in Legacy with gypsum. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) scores plot showed that PC1 separated Brigitta from Legacy-Al resistant, while PC2 helped to discriminate Bluegold Al-sensitive cultivar with gypsum treatment from the rest of the samples, including Bluegold without gypsum. CONCLUSIONS: Gypsum amendment ameliorates leaf morphology alterations as well as photochemical and biochemical damages in highbush blueberry under Al-toxicity, being cultivar-dependent. The morphological parameters can be important features as Al-resistance anatomical markers in highbush blueberry.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Blueberries possess anthocyanins which exert cardiovascular benefits but little is known about the timeframe of these benefits. OBJECTIVES: Examine effects of blueberry (BB) or placebo (PL) on variables of blood pressure (BP), augmentation index (AIx), and pulse wave velocity (cPWV) each week for three weeks for chronic assessment and within 1 h and 2 h to assess acute effects in sedentary individuals. METHODS: Participants (N = 22), 40 to 70 years old were randomized into BB (n = 10) or PL (n = 12). Baseline values were obtained, participants consumed 38 g BB or PL/d for three weeks, and BP, AIx, and…cPWV were measured weekly. At the end of week three, 38 g of BB or PL were ingested and acute measures taken at one and two hours post-consumption. RESULTS: Chronic and acute ingestion resulted in significant Treatment-Time Interaction for systolic BP (SBP) (p = 0.030 and p = 0.017, respectively) with BB group being lower. Diastolic pressures were not affected. Chronic and acute Time (p = 0.029 and p = 0.021, respectively), but not Treatment or Interaction, effects existed for AIx. Acute Time effects existed for cPWV (p = 0.020) but not for Treatment or Interaction. CONCLUSIONS: Change in SBP was not mediated by vessel distensibility but was likely due to an unknown physiologic factor not examined.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Red raspberries contain high concentrations of anthocyanins (ACNs). Consumption of red raspberries has steadily increased in the US because of their potential health effects. Processed red raspberry products are widely used in commercial applications, but their ACN contents are largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: Types of ACNs and their contents in common processed red raspberries (frozen, juice concentrate and puree) on the US market were investigated. METHOD: ACN were analyzed and quantified in thirty-four nationally representative processed red raspberry samples by HPLC-MS. RESULTS: Seven cyanidin or pelargonidin glycosides were detected and quantified. Each individual samples…contained 4 to 5 of them. Cyanidin-3-O -sophoroside and cyanidin-3-O -glucoside were found to be the major ACNs in all samples, while the minor ACNs varied among different samples. Total ACN contents ranged from 13.88±1.21 to 38.43±2.75 mg/100 g for frozen red raspberries, 30.96±5.34 to 65.29±3.37 mg/100 g for red raspberry juice concentrates, and 10.89±0.94 to 27.11±1.15 mg/100 g for red raspberry puree samples. CONCLUSION: The types of ACNs varied slightly but the contents varied considerably between different samples. The sources (national brand vs. store brand, domestic or imported) and processing method (seeded or seedless) did not appear to be major influential factors when multiple samples were included in the comparison.
Keywords: Red raspberries, anthocyanin, cyanidin, pelargonidin, juice
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Excessive production of grape is valorized by traditional drying and homemade jam production in some regions of Algeria. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the changes in antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds and their bioaccessibility in two grape varieties (Cardinal and Dabouki or Sabel) as a result of traditional sun drying and homemade jam processes. METHODS: Fresh and dried grapes, as well as jam samples were subjected to a series of spectrophotometric analyses including total phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity. Individual phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD-MS-QTOF. An in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was…applied to evaluate the bioaccessibility. RESULTS: Both traditional processes led to considerable losses in the levels of some phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activities. However, an increase in the content of other phenolic acids was also observed after processing. Total phenolics, total flavonoids and total antioxidant capacity recovery values of the dialysable fraction of processed samples were higher than those of fresh grapes for both varieties. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional raisins and homemade jams could be considered as good sources of natural antioxidants, although a modification of some critical steps that may negatively affect their antioxidant properties is suggested in the light of this study.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Ozonation is promising method for prolonging the postharvest shelf life as well as decrease of microbiological contamination and pesticide residue in soft fruit. In view of the fact, that ozone is a substance that can induce the reactive oxygen species generation in plant cells, it is necessary to determine the effect of ozone treatment on the antioxidant status in fruit. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of ozonation on the antioxidant status in blackcurrant fruit. METHODS: Blackcurrants were exposed to ozone at the concentration of 16 mg L–1 and 160 mg L–1…for 5, 15 and 30 min. Changes in antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and activity of selected antioxidant enzymes after ozonation were analyzed. RESULTS: It was found, that under proposed conditions the activity of enzymes involved in scavenging of reactive oxygen species (quaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase) increased with ozone concentration and treatment time. In addition, the ozone treatment activated the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, whose an activity showed a strong correlation with total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of blackcurrants. CONCLUSIONS: Ozonation process activated a protective mechanisms against occurrence of oxidative stress in blackcurrant fruit.