Journal of Berry Research - Volume Pre-press, issue Pre-press
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Impact Factor 2019: 2.379
The main objective of the
Journal of Berry Research is to improve the knowledge about quality and production of berries to benefit health of the consumers and maintain profitable production using sustainable systems.
The objective will be achieved by focusing on four main areas of research and development:
1. From genetics to variety evaluation
2. Nursery production systems and plant quality control
3. Plant physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as cultural management
4. Health for the consumer: components and factors affecting berries' nutritional value
Specifically, the journal will cover berries (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, cranberry currants, etc.), as well as grapes and small soft fruit in general (e.g., kiwi fruit). It will publish research results covering all areas of plant breeding, including plant genetics, genomics, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, plant physiology, plant pathology and plant development, as well as results dealing with the chemistry and biochemistry of bioactive compounds contained in such fruits and their possible role in human health. Contributions detailing possible pharmacological, medical or therapeutic use or dietary significance will be welcomed in addition to studies regarding biosafety issues of genetically modified plants.
Journal of Berry Research will feature reviews, research articles, brief communications, position papers, letters and patent updates.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: High anthocyanin content and the presence of other bioactive compounds are attractive characteristics of strawberry fruits for healthy consumption. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the anthocyanin content and the presence of other bioactive compounds, including anthocyanin (total and predominant types) andantioxidant activity; and to determine the physico-chemical fruit quality parameters of two new strawberry cultivars. METHOD: Fruits of two new hybrids were extracted and total anthocyanin and antioxidant activity were determined usinga UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Individual anthocyanins and vitamin C were measured using an HPLC. Physico-chemical characteristics of fruits were analyzed. RESULTS: Hybrid No. 4 line 5…and hybrid No. 4 line 26 are two potential new strawberry cultivars that are rich in anthocyanins. The total anthocyanin contents of these two hybrids were approximately 31–38 mg/100 g FW with no significant differences between them. Cyanidin 3-glucoside and pelargonidin 3-glucoside were foundat amounts of approximately 15–24 mg/kgFW and 332–478 mg/kg FW, respectively. Total phenolic compounds and FRAP activity of the two hybrids were approximately 2295–2579 mg GAE/kgFWand 27–30 mmol Fe2 + /kg FW, respectively. CONCLUSION: The two new hybrid strawberry lines, hybrid No. 4 line 5 and No. 4 line 26, when compared to the parents, had higher levels of bioactive compounds, especially anthocyanins, total phenolics, and FRAP, together with improved physico-chemical quality, and higher vitamin C content. These results indicate a considerable potential of these hybrids for commercial cultivation in Thailand and other production regions.
Abstract: Conventional and low-calorie rosehip leathers were developed by several drying processes: convective and vacuum drying, both with and without a preconcentration process, and combined with a stage of microwave finish drying. The aim of this study was to reduce the processing time and to improve quality retention, in comparison with the conventional convective drying. The product temperature and moisture content as a function of time were analyzed in each case. Color and ascorbic acid content were measured in the leathers, as indexes of organoleptic and nutritional quality, respectively. Total drying times varied widely, between 120 and 870 min, while diffusion coefficients…from 4.60 x10–10 to 52.3 x10–10 m2 /s were fitted. The color was mostly affected by a combined time-temperature effect, while ascorbic acid retention showed a dependence on the oxygen partial pressure during drying. The concentration process carried out before drying caused no improvement on the dehydration rate of further convective or vacuum drying nor on product quality. Microwave finish drying led to the lowest processing times though it was detrimental for color and nutritional retention of leathers at an absorbed power level of about 1 W/g. Vacuum drying resulted the best option in this research, as it implied shorter processing time and higher quality retention compared with convective drying.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The scientific interest regarding raspberry leaf composition and potential benefits grow. Still, little is known about raspberry leaves. OBJECTIVE: Extracts from nine raspberry leaf species and Autumn Bliss raspberry leaf tea (LT) were evaluated for their phenolic characteristics along with potential biological activities. METHODS: Phenolic constituents in leaf extracts from LT and nine raspberry species, including European red raspberry (ERR), Australian red raspberry (ARR), U.S. Raspberry (USR), Autumn Bliss (AB), Heritage (H), Tulameen (T), Longyuan Qiufeng (LQ), Qiuping (Q), and Fengman Hong (FH) were evaluated by UPLC-MS. Regarding to the bioactive activities, antioxidant activities (DPPH…and ABTS assays), antidiabetic properties (α -amylase inhibition and α -glucosidase inhibition assays), antibacterial activities (growth inhibition zone measurement and a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)), and anti-inflammatory properties (inhibition of hyaluronidase activity and inhibition of albumin denaturation), were investigated. RESULTS: The results showed that ERR extract exhibited the highest levels of total phenolic (5.56±0.058 mg/g), the highest chlorogenic acid (597.03±10.90 mg/kg) and rutin level (2771.9±41.52 mg/kg). Autumn Bliss LT possessed the lowest total phenolics, and lowest DPPH scavenging activity. A high correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant activity was found in these extracts. CONCLUSIONS: High phytochemical contents and biological activities of these raspberry leaves, including antioxidant, antidiabetic, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory effect were shown, which indicated their consumption would be beneficial to health.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Arazá, a flavorsome berry rich in antigenotoxic and antimutagenic antioxidants (phenolics/carotenoids/flavonoids/ascorbic acid) could be used for preparing functional powdered instant-beverages. Moisture sorption can cause quality problems therefore a thorough analysis of powder sorption properties is required. OBJECTIVE: To study freeze-dried arazá moisture sorption behavior using maltodextrin or Arabic-gum as drying-aids and its effect on isosteric-sorption-heat, differential-entropy, mechanism controlling moisture-sorption, color, solubility and antioxidant content/activity. METHODS: To determine arazá/maltodextrin and arazá/Arabic-gum moisture-sorption capacities and their effect on powders physicochemical properties, samples were exposed to relative humidities ranging 0.11–0.76 and 10/20/40°C until reaching equilibrium. Changes in equilibrium…water content (Wc ), cold water solubility, antioxidant (polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids and ascorbic acid) concentration and activity were recorded. RESULTS: GAB model satisfactorily predicted Wm ; the samples monolayer-moisture concentrations were lower than 0.1 kg H2 O (kg dried matter)–1 indicating good powder stability. Thermodynamic properties/Wc relationships and the sorption process mechanism were determined. At 10/20°C arazá/maltodextrin had better color/solubility, higher total polyphenols/carotenoids/flavonoids and lower ascorbic acid contents than arazá/Arabic-gum, however, antioxidant activities were similar. Temperature/water activity (aw ) combinations for optimum color, solubility, antioxidant content/activity were 10°C/aw ≤0.11 (arazá/Arabic-gum) and 10°C/aw ≤0.23 (arazá/maltodextrin).
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Georgia’s small fruit sector is important to the state’s agricultural economy, and is seeking ways to promote their fruits in the health and wellness market. Based on the hot, humid, climatic conditions of the U.S. Southeast, three blackberry varieties, namely ‘Navaho’, ‘Ouachita’, and ‘Kiowa’,can grow, but a complete characterization of their antioxidant phenolic constituents has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in U.S. Southeastern erect-type blackberry cultivars of commercial significance. METHODS: Phenolics from blackberries were isolated, separated, and elucidated both qualitatively and quantitatively by various chromatographic…means, including HPLC–ESI–MS and MALDI–TOF–MS. RESULTS: Delphinidin-3-O -glucoside, malvidin-3-O -glucoside, quercetin-3-O -glucoside malonate, and propelargonidin B-type dimer were present in the Southeastern blackberries, which have not been found in any major U.S. cultivars. MALDI–TOF–MS analysis revealed a distinctive ellagitannin profile among the cultivars, and identified 5 additiona lellagitannin compounds that were not elucidated by HPLC–ESI–MS.The detection of the propelargonidin B-type dimer revealed that the flavan-3-ols of blackberries are not limited to (epi)catechin-based compounds. CONCLUSIONS: U.S. Southeastern erect-type blackberry cultivars grown in Georgia showed distinct phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities from those of Pacific Northwestern cultivars.
Abstract: Background: Stable transformation, transient expression, and post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) are powerful methodologies that allow exploration of gene function. Objective: We aimed to apply these methodologies to strawberry leaves. Methods: the binary vectors pBIN19-sgfp , pBICdsGFP and pBIN61-P19 were transferred into A. tumefaciens EHA105 supervirulent strain by electroporation. The sgfp gene silencing was carried out in stably transformed GFP (green fluorescent protein) F. x ananassa Duch. cultivar ‘Pájaro’ strawberry plants by agroinfiltration. GFP-fluorescence was observed using a stereomicroscope (507 nm). Results: We attained a GFP transgenic F. x ananassa plant that…expresses the functional protein in all the tissues during a complete and normal life cycle. In planta sgfp transient expression and silencing have also been achieved in F. x ananassa cv. ‘Pájaro’ leaves of wild type and GFP transgenic plants, respectively. Agrobacterium- mediated transient expression was visualized as high intensity green fluorescent spots as early as 7 days post-agroinfiltration (dpa), peaking between 10 and 14 dpa and persisting as long as 24 dpa. A knockdown GFP phenotype was achieved by silencing using a dsGFP hairpin. Conclusion: This work contributes significantly to the reverse genetics field in strawberry, might help to gain knowledge in the analysis of functional promoters and thereby allow protein expression and silencing of genes. This will help to develop resistant plants expressing plant defense elicitors or silencing pathogen receptors and/or negative regulators of plant defense.
Keywords: Fragaria x ananassa Duch., green fluorescent protein, in
planta monitoring, post-transcriptional gene silencing, strawberry, transgenesis, transient
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The consumption of fruits, mainly berries, has been associated with beneficial health properties. These properties would be related to the quantity and quality of the metabolites present. Some native berries from the Andes, such as Andean elderberry, would be an important source of metabolites with bioactive properties. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate at the physico-chemical and metabolomic level the characteristics of the elderberry from four different high Andean regions, and to determine their bioactive potential through in vitro tests. RESULTS: Significant differences were found in the evaluated characteristics according to the Region of procedence of the…fruit. Glucose was the main sugar for all berry samples, followed by fructose. Among the most important organic acids, citric and malic acid were found. Elderberry from Apurimac presented the highest content of total sugars and lower content of total acids in comparison to the samples from other procedences. UPLC-PAD results indicate that Junin elderberries presented the highest value of total phenolic compounds with high contents of flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids and anthocyanins. Andean elderberry presented cyanidin 3-O -glucoside and cyanidin 3-O -sambubioside as main anthocyanins as well as their respective isomers. All samples showed inhibition activities against the different evaluated enzymes. Elderberries from Apurimac and Junín, displayed the lowest values of IC50 for the inhibition of α -amylase and α -glucosidase, while for the inhibition of lipase and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE-I) elderberries from Junín displayed the lowest IC50 values. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that Andean elderberry could be considered as an important source of bioactive compounds with properties that could be highlighted by the nutraceutical and functional food industries.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in cover crops for orchards and vineyards to help control weeds and thereby reduce the need for tillage or herbicide applications. However, there is concern that cover crops may compete with the vines for mineral nutrition. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to study how two different soil management practices (tillage and cover crop) affected the nutrient content of clusters and leaves of table grape vines. METHODS: In 2015 and 2016, the effect of soil management practices on the concentration of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium and sulphur in…leaves and clusters of Italia table grape vines (Vitis vinifera L.) in a vineyard located in Puglia (South-eastern Italy) was determined, throughout the growing season. RESULTS: Nutrient concentrations in leaves and fruit varied during phenological stages each growing season, and there were significant differences induced by the two soil management practices. A cover crop increased the content of calcium and sodium in clusters and phosphorous and sulphur in leaves. No deficiencies were noticed in the two years and yields were similar regardless of soil management practices. CONCLUSIONS: This study, carried out in an irrigated table grape vineyard, showed that cover crops could be used as sustainable soil management strategies without significant influence on yield and fruit quality with respect to vines subjected to traditional tillage. Moreover, nutrient concentrations in leaves and clusters was almost similar in the two treatments with only few exceptions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Lycium barbarum L. has received considerable attention due to nutritional value of berries and its cultivation in Europe has attracted growing interest. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was characterization of Lycium barbarum L. berry cultivated in North Macedonia in terms of nutritional and functional properties and comparison with Lycium chinense M. variety. METHODS: Minerals, total proteins, sugars, antioxidant activity, fatty acids, carotenoids and polyphenols were determined and lipid indices were evaluated. Principal Component Analysis was used to describe variability of composition, while heat map to recognize the parameters significantly different for…varieties. RESULTS: Lycium barbarum L. cultivated in North Macedonia represents a rich source of K, Cu, Mn, P, Zn, Mg, Fe and antioxidant compounds. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly linolenic acid) were dominant in oil resulting in very low atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. A variability of 35.1% was ascribed to minerals, carbohydrates and proteins, 22.3% to ω -6 fatty acids and lipid indices of oil, 19.4% to nutrients with antioxidant activity and 13.4% to ω -3 fatty acids (n-3 and n-3/n-6 ratio). CONCLUSIONS: Chemometric analysis highlighted significant differences in terms of inorganic nutrients, antioxidant capacity, proteins, sugar profile and lipid indices in Lycium barbarum L. compared to Lycium chinense M.
Lycium barbarum L.,
Lycium chinense M., mineral nutrient, fatty acid, antioxidant activity, unsupervised chemometrics
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Vaccinium is one of the largest genera (ca. 500 species) of Ericaceae, well known for its edible and ornamental uses. Although there is certain karyological knowledge, information about genome size (GS) is scarce in the genus. OBJECTIVE: The main goal is providing GS data for several Vaccinium species with prevalence in Europe and Western Asia and analysing global GS variation in the genus, considering available data and phylogenetic context. METHODS: New GS assessments were obtained by flow cytometry and chromosome counts were verified. Phylogenetic analyses (using nuclear ITS, and chloroplastic mat K and…ndh F) were performed by Bayesian inference and reconstruction of ancestral GS by maximum parsimony. RESULTS: We obtained GS data for five Vaccinium species (13 populations). Three species are reported for the first time. Values (2C) ranged between 1.16–1.47 pg at the diploid (2n = 24) and between 3.13–3.16 pg at the tetraploid (2n = 48) levels. The five species here investigated have been placed and analysed in a reconstructed phylogenetic background (including 68 taxa). CONCLUSIONS: GS values of Vaccinium can be considered “very small”. The preliminary reconstruction of ancestral GS would point to a reduction in Vaccinium , although more data is needed to establish global GS evolutionary trend in the genus.
Keywords: Berries, C-value, chromosome counts, flow cytometry, nuclear DNA amount, nuclear DNA content