Journal of Berry Research - Volume Pre-press, issue Pre-press
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The main objective of the
Journal of Berry Research is to improve the knowledge about quality and production of berries to benefit health of the consumers and maintain profitable production using sustainable systems.
The objective will be achieved by focusing on four main areas of research and development:
1. From genetics to variety evaluation
2. Nursery production systems and plant quality control
3. Plant physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as cultural management
4. Health for the consumer: components and factors affecting berries' nutritional value
Specifically, the journal will cover berries (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, cranberry currants, etc.), as well as grapes and small soft fruit in general (e.g., kiwi fruit). It will publish research results covering all areas of plant breeding, including plant genetics, genomics, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, plant physiology, plant pathology and plant development, as well as results dealing with the chemistry and biochemistry of bioactive compounds contained in such fruits and their possible role in human health. Contributions detailing possible pharmacological, medical or therapeutic use or dietary significance will be welcomed in addition to studies regarding biosafety issues of genetically modified plants.
Journal of Berry Research will feature reviews, research articles, brief communications, position papers, letters and patent updates.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The strawberry is an important commercial crop, the improvement of its yield and quality is an imperative task. OBJECTIVE: The present research aimed to study the effect of colored netting and foliar application of amino acids on the physiological characteristics of strawberries subjected to different irrigation intervals. METHODS: The study was carried out as a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three factors including colored net at 4 levels (no netting, green, red, and yellow netting), organic acids at 4 levels (control, humic acid, glutamine, and arginine), and three levels of…irrigation intervals (2, 4, and 6 days) in the greenhouse of Lahijan Agricultural Research Station, Iran. RESULTS: The results showed that the highest leaf number, shoot weight, chlorophyll and carotenoid content were related to yellow netting. The highest fruit yield, anthocyanins, and flavonoids were observed in the treatments of no-netting, green netting, and red netting, respectively. Data for the effect of organic acids showed that the glutamine-treated plants exhibited the highest yield, the humic acid-treated plants displayed the highest anthocyanin and carotenoid content, and the arginine-treated plants demonstrated the highest vitamin C content. The irrigation interval of 6 days caused to the lowest leaf number, flower and fruit number, shoot weight, fruit yield, and carotenoid content. Data for the trilateral effect of ‘netting×organic acid×irrigation’ showed that the highest flower number and fruit yield were obtained from ‘green netting×glutamine×4 days’, the highest anthocyanin content was obtained from ‘green netting×humic acid×2 days’, and the highest chlorophyll content was obtained from ‘green netting×control×6 days’. The treatment of ‘yellow netting×control×2 days’ was related to the highest flavonoid content. CONCLUSIONS: The application of colored nets provides the strawberry with more optimal vegetative and reproductive growth.
Keywords: Anthocyanin, drought stress, glutamine, organic acids, vitamin C
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Vine nutrition affects the composition of grapes, but how it impacts the aroma of grapes is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to investigate the effect of different fertilizers: chemical fertilizer (CF), sheep manure-based organic fertilizer (OF), 50% organic fertilizer + 50% chemical fertilizer (O + C), 25% organic fertilizer + 25% chemical fertilizer [1/2(O + C)], and soil conditioner (SC) on the aroma accumulation of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes. METHODS: The treatments were applied and samples were collected in 2019 at weekly intervals from August 7 to September 22. The grapes’ chemical characteristics and volatile compounds were analyzed.…RESULTS: The chemical results showed that the treatments had a positive effect on grapes, with a strong preference for the 1/2(O + C) treatment. Grape aroma results showed that the concentrations of grape aromas in O + C-treated samples were lower than the other treatments. The OF treated samples had comparatively high (24.8%) volatile concentrations during maturity compared to other treatments, including the control (15.9%). Throughout development, samples treated with OF (17.4%) and CF (15.7%) had higher volatile concentrations than samples treated with SC (14.4%), 1/2(O + C) (12.8%), and O + C (12.4%). However, compared to SC-treated samples, samples treated with 1/2(O + C) increased the accumulation of terpenes and esters. The principal component analysis (PCA) results showed that samples treated with OF were strongly correlated to carbonyls, terpenes, and esters during maturity. CONCLUSION: The type and ratio of fertilizer used had a significant impact on the aroma profile of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes.
Abstract: Blueberries are one of the most popular and widely consumed berries, they are usually consumed fresh, dried or processed into juice. During the production of juices large quantities of berry press residues are generated, which are an industrial by-product and they accumulate as food waste. Optimal management of this industrial fruit by-product could help in utilising berry press residues with the purpose to valorise and add economic value. Blueberry press residues consist of skins and seeds which hold valuable compounds with antioxidant activity –polyphenolics. To facilitate the objective of bioactive compound release, the cell walls must rupture. Pectolytic enzymes could…be used to degrade the structural polysaccharides of the berry skin cell wall, thus releasing the contents of the cells into the extraction medium. The physical characteristics of berry skins allows the use of pectolytic enzymes for the disruption of cells; however, the effects of enzymatic hydrolysis could be further improved using ultrasound. In this study the combined effects of enzyme and ultrasonic treatments were evaluated and optimised using the Response Surface Methodology approach in order to increase the release of polyphenolic compounds (especially anthocyanins). The optimised method was further tested to evaluate the application potential of enzyme and ultrasound treatment to prepare blueberry or lingonberry juice with increased antioxidant activity and more vibrant colour. The obtained results provide an optional method of berry press residue valorisation to produce higher quality juice or extract bioactive compounds from this type of food-waste.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Earlier planting under subtropical climatic conditions has been proposed as a means of increasing strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) profitability but exposes transplants to heat stress. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, physical and chemical methods of ameliorating heat stress on the establishment, growth, and yield of containerized strawberry transplants were evaluated. METHODS: We used a split-plot design with white-on-black (white) mulch and black mulch as main plot treatments; and a factorial arrangement of transplant type and stress-prevention application was randomly assigned to the subplots. ‘Florida Radiance’ Jiffy plug and tray plug transplants were treated either with s-abscisic acid…or with kaolin. RESULTS: White mulch resulted in greater plant vigor and vegetative growth than black mulch. Kaolin plus white mulch provided protection against heat stress as indicated by increased photosynthesis rates. At 4 weeks after transplanting, plant vigor and shoot growth were higher and flowering occurred earlier with Jiffy plug transplants than with tray plug transplants. Early marketable yields were higher with white mulch than with black mulch in three of the four site years. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of white mulch, Jiffy plug transplants, and kaolin application appears to have the best potential for alleviating heat stress during early-season strawberry establishment under subtropical conditions.
Keywords: s-abscisic acid, kaolin, ‘Florida Radiance’, ‘Florida Fortuna’, white-on-black mulch, plug transplants, tray plug transplants, heat stress, early season establishment
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Carmustine is a chemotherapeutic agent that is mainly used in the treatment of glioblastoma and can cause toxic effects on various organs, including the liver. The white mulberry extract has anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant effects. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed at investigating the effects of the dried white mulberry extract on the pathology, apoptosis, and oxidative stress in the liver, as well as the levels of serum adenosine deaminase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, ceruloplasmin, paraoxonase, and malondialdehyde in carmustine-administrated rats. METHODS: Forty-two rats divided into six groups were used in this study. BCNU was administrated intraperitoneally (IP)…(5 mg/kg body weight (BW)/week) for 10 weeks to the BCNU and BCNU-DWME groups. DWME was administered (600 mg/kg-BW by oral gavage) daily for 10 weeks to the DWME and BCNU-DWME groups. After the experimental procedure, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical analyses were performed. RESULTS: Carmustine caused biliary hyperplasia at a dose of 5 mg/kg. However, the mulberry extract was not effective in alleviating this pathology. Furthermore, the administration of carmustine induced apoptosis in hepatocytes, and the mulberry extract had an anti-apoptotic effect. Carmustine increased the 8-OHdG activity in the liver, and dried mulberry extract ameliorated this activity. Although there was no significant difference in the serum oxidative stress parameters between the groups, carmustine significantly increased the adenosine deaminase activity during the recovery period, while mulberry extracts partially ameliorated these effects in the recovery period. CONCLUSIONS: Dried white mulberry extract has anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative effects against carmustine-induced toxicity.
Keywords: Apoptosis, biochemistry, carmustine, liver, white mulberry extract
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Kiwifruit plants are extremely sensitive to hail storms. Black anti-hail nets are the most frequently used in kiwifruit culture, to protect both the plant and current as well as future production. OBJECTIVE: The present trial aimed to assess if the black hail net could also serve as an amelioration agent against high temperature and irradiance during the summer months. METHODS: The photosynthetic capacity, the yield, and fruit quality (carbohydrates, organic acids, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant capacity) of “Hayward” kiwifruit cultivar, both at harvest and after three months of storage were evaluated.…RESULTS: Photosynthetic capacity under the net was slightly higher compared to control, while leaf temperature was always lower during the summer and autumn. The yield was significantly enhanced under the net, while the fruits exhibited higher titratable acidity, organic acids, and ascorbic acid concentration. After the storage, fruits produced from vines grown under net still had higher organic acid content, as well as total soluble solids but lower antioxidant capacity compared to control. CONCLUSIONS: Net installation above kiwifruit canopy seems to alleviate the effects of high temperature and heat load on kiwifruit vines, under saturating light intensity, inducing higher yields with good fruit quality.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are widespread in plant genomes and play a large role in the generation of genomic variation. Despite this, their identification and characterization remains challenging, especially for non-model genomes. Hence, LTR retrotransposons remain undercharacterized in Vaccinium genomes, although they may be beneficial for current berry breeding efforts. OBJECTIVE: Exemplarily focusing on the genome of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton), we aim to generate an overview of the LTR retrotransposon landscape, highlighting the abundance, transcriptional activity, sequence, and structure of the major retrotransposon lineages. METHODS: Graph-based clustering of whole genome…shotgun Illumina reads was performed to identify the most abundant LTR retrotransposons and to reconstruct representative in silico full-length elements. To generate insights into the LTR retrotransposon diversity in V. macrocarpon , we also queried the genome assembly for presence of reverse transcriptases (RTs), the key domain of LTR retrotransposons. Using transcriptomic data, transcriptional activity of retrotransposons corresponding to the consensuses was analyzed. RESULTS: We provide an in-depth characterization of the LTR retrotransposon landscape in the V. macrocarpon genome. Based on 475 RTs harvested from the genome assembly, we detect a high retrotransposon variety, with all major lineages present. To better understand their structural hallmarks, we reconstructed 26 Ty1-copia and 28 Ty3-gypsy in silico consensuses that capture the detected diversity. Accordingly, we frequently identify association with tandemly repeated motifs, extra open reading frames, and specialized, lineage-typical domains. Based on the overall high genomic abundance and transcriptional activity, we suggest that retrotransposons of the Ale and Athila lineages are most promising to monitor retrotransposon-derived polymorphisms across accessions. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that LTR retrotransposons are major components of the V. macrocarpon genome. The representative consensuses provide an entry point for further Vaccinium genome analyses and may be applied to derive molecular markers for enhancing cranberry selection and breeding.
Abstract: Dioecism and an extended juvenile phase of 3–7 years in kiwifruit hinder the progress in breeding new cultivars. The identification of fruit-bearing females at an early stage of growth is crucial for breeders. Consequently, molecular markers have become a key tool for identifying female and male plants at an early stage of development. Several efforts were made to identify PCR-based sex linked markers in Actinidia ; however, those markers are characterized by a highly polymorphic nature affecting the result of the screening reliability, suggesting the need of more suitable, stable markers, characterized by a consistent transferability among genotypes and species.…The main goal of this work was to develop a method for the ultimate discrimination of females from male plants at an early stage of growth using sex-linked markers. We developed an Early Sex Discrimination molecular Test (ESD Test) that allows the discrimination of male and female plants using a simple PCR amplification test. We demonstrate that the test could unequivocally identify the gender of an unknown sample both in the most commercially important species A. chinensis and in further 13 Actinidia species tested with the exception of Actinidia latifolia , where markers fail in gender discrimination. Male genotypes could be easily identified and discarded reducing the cost of a breeding program.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Berberine, extracted from Berberis vulgaris, is one of the well-known natural antioxidant sources. OBJECTIVE: Optimizing the berberine extraction conditions from the whole Barberry plant and microencapsulation of the optimized extract to be used as a bioactive ingredient in functional orange juice. METHODS: Seventeen extraction processes were designed to determine an optimized method for producing an ethanol/water extract with maximum yield, safety, and antioxidant properties. The optimal extract was microencapsulated by complex coacervation using tragacanth/gelatin and then spray-dried. The selected microcapsules based on morphology, particle size, and solubility were added to orange juice, and the…physical and sensory properties of the functional drink, as well as the kinetic release models, were analyzed. RESULTS: An optimal extract with 82%antioxidant activity was prepared using a 75%ethanol/water ratio and an extraction time of 0.5 h at 22.3°C. Spherical-shaped microcapsules could create a desirable cloudy appearance with good stability in the pH of orange juice. The kinetics of the berberine release revealed an initial burst phase followed by a prolonged one, which would appeal to consumers’ sensory perceptions. CONCLUSIONS: The excellent compatibility between berberine and orange juice provides a potential capacity to fortify a high-consumption drink with a phytonutrient presented in a berry fruit.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: ×Sorbaronia mitschurinii (also known as Aronia mitschurinii ) is an intergeneric hybrid of×Sorbaronia fallax and Aronia melanocarpa . ×S. mitschurinii berry is a rich source of phytochemicals such as flavonoids and anthocyanins, which have a broad range of health benefits and a great geroprotective potential. OBJECTIVES: The goal of the present study was to investigate the geroprotective effects of Sorbaronia berry ethanolic extract (SBE) in Drosophila melanogaster and whether these effects depend on the concentration of SBE, duration of treatment, age, and sex. METHODS: SBE was used to supplement a diet…of Drosophila imagoes throughout life, during 2 weeks after the imago hatching, and from 4 to 6 weeks of age. The relationship between the SBE effects on lifespan, stress resistance and the expression of stress response genes were examined. RESULTS: SBE treatment at 1-2 and 4-6 weeks of life increased the lifespan, while treatment throughout life reduced lifespan. SBE treatment increased Drosophila resistance to oxidative stress and starvation, but not to hyperthermia. A statistically significant effect of SBE treatment on the expression level of per , keap1 , hif1 , hsp27 , hsp68 , hsp83 , and sirt1 genes in flies of both sexes and on sod1 expression only in female flies was demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: The observed relationship between SBE concentration and lifespan effects suggests that the life-extending effect of SBE may be associated with the mechanism of hormesis.