Journal of Berry Research - Volume Pre-press, issue Pre-press
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The main objective of the
Journal of Berry Research is to improve the knowledge about quality and production of berries to benefit health of the consumers and maintain profitable production using sustainable systems.
The objective will be achieved by focusing on four main areas of research and development:
1. From genetics to variety evaluation
2. Nursery production systems and plant quality control
3. Plant physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as cultural management
4. Health for the consumer: components and factors affecting berries' nutritional value
Specifically, the journal will cover berries (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, cranberry currants, etc.), as well as grapes and small soft fruit in general (e.g., kiwi fruit). It will publish research results covering all areas of plant breeding, including plant genetics, genomics, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, plant physiology, plant pathology and plant development, as well as results dealing with the chemistry and biochemistry of bioactive compounds contained in such fruits and their possible role in human health. Contributions detailing possible pharmacological, medical or therapeutic use or dietary significance will be welcomed in addition to studies regarding biosafety issues of genetically modified plants.
Journal of Berry Research will feature reviews, research articles, brief communications, position papers, letters and patent updates.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Berries indigenously grown in Asia are known for their diversified nutritional and health promoting properties. Establishing a link between berry consumption and their classical uses in health management however requires detailed research in exploring varied biochemical factors and their therapeutic role in averting risks of chronic disorders. OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed at evaluating anti-inflammatory and anticancer responses of fruit extracts of Grewia asiatica locally known as Phalsa . METHODS: Dichloromethane, methanol and 50% hydro-methanolic fractions of fruit were evaluated for polyphenols characterization, quantification and antioxidant assays. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive responses of fruit…extracts were evaluated in rats and mice models, respectively, and cytotoxic activities were measured against MCF-7, HeLa, HEp-2, NCI-H522, HEK-293 cancer cell cultures. RESULTS: Phenolics quantification and biological study data suggested 50% hydro-methanolic extracts as maximum carrier of flavonoids (7.92 mgQE/g), anthocyanins (8.1 mg/Kg) and tannins (187.2 mgGAE/g) that significantly (p < 0.05)resulted in higher oxidation inhibition (IC50 41.1 ug/ml), paw edema inhibition (68–74%) and pain mediation in neurogenic phase(31–62%) when administrated at the rate of 400 mg/kg b.w. Maximum cytotoxic activity of G. asiatica (50% hydro-methanolic extracts) was observed against MCF-7 (IC50 34.9 ug/mL), HEp-2 (IC50 80.4 ug/mL) and NCI-H522 (IC50 73 ug/mL) cancer cell lines. LC-ESI-MS/MS characterization of hydro-alcoholic fractions bearing potent biological activities revealed Gallic acid, Ellagic acid, Quinic acid, Calycosin, Vidalenolone, Quercetin, Myricetin, Liquitrigenin and 6-aldehydo-isoophiopogonone. Human equivalent doses of the extracts calculated on the basis of total phenolic contents for anti-inflammatory and nociceptive assays were in range between 6.2–15.8 mg/kg b.w., and 3.1–7.9 mg/kg b.w., respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of the study suggest G. asiatica fruit extracts are a potential source of bioactive compounds that might further be explored for anti-inflammatory and anticancer drug discovery and its clinical exploitation. Study concludes supplementation of G. asiatica extracts as possible approach to acquire curative properties in human subjects.
Keywords: Grewia asiatica
, inflammation, cancer, cytotoxicity, breast
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Georgia’s small fruit sector is important to the state’s agricultural economy, and is seeking ways to promote their fruits in the health and wellness market. Based on the hot, humid, climatic conditions of the U.S. Southeast, three blackberry varieties, namely ‘Navaho’, ‘Ouachita’, and ‘Kiowa’,can grow, but a complete characterization of their antioxidant phenolic constituents has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in U.S. Southeastern erect-type blackberry cultivars of commercial significance. METHODS: Phenolics from blackberries were isolated, separated, and elucidated both qualitatively and quantitatively by various chromatographic…means, including HPLC–ESI–MS and MALDI–TOF–MS. RESULTS: Delphinidin-3-O -glucoside, malvidin-3-O -glucoside, quercetin-3-O -glucoside malonate, and propelargonidin B-type dimer were present in the Southeastern blackberries, which have not been found in any major U.S. cultivars. MALDI–TOF–MS analysis revealed a distinctive ellagitannin profile among the cultivars, and identified 5 additiona lellagitannin compounds that were not elucidated by HPLC–ESI–MS.The detection of the propelargonidin B-type dimer revealed that the flavan-3-ols of blackberries are not limited to (epi)catechin-based compounds. CONCLUSIONS: U.S. Southeastern erect-type blackberry cultivars grown in Georgia showed distinct phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities from those of Pacific Northwestern cultivars.
Abstract: Background: Stable transformation, transient expression, and post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) are powerful methodologies that allow exploration of gene function. Objective: We aimed to apply these methodologies to strawberry leaves. Methods: the binary vectors pBIN19-sgfp , pBICdsGFP and pBIN61-P19 were transferred into A. tumefaciens EHA105 supervirulent strain by electroporation. The sgfp gene silencing was carried out in stably transformed GFP (green fluorescent protein) F. x ananassa Duch. cultivar ‘Pájaro’ strawberry plants by agroinfiltration. GFP-fluorescence was observed using a stereomicroscope (507 nm). Results: We attained a GFP transgenic F. x ananassa plant that…expresses the functional protein in all the tissues during a complete and normal life cycle. In planta sgfp transient expression and silencing have also been achieved in F. x ananassa cv. ‘Pájaro’ leaves of wild type and GFP transgenic plants, respectively. Agrobacterium- mediated transient expression was visualized as high intensity green fluorescent spots as early as 7 days post-agroinfiltration (dpa), peaking between 10 and 14 dpa and persisting as long as 24 dpa. A knockdown GFP phenotype was achieved by silencing using a dsGFP hairpin. Conclusion: This work contributes significantly to the reverse genetics field in strawberry, might help to gain knowledge in the analysis of functional promoters and thereby allow protein expression and silencing of genes. This will help to develop resistant plants expressing plant defense elicitors or silencing pathogen receptors and/or negative regulators of plant defense.
Keywords: Fragaria x ananassa Duch., green fluorescent protein, in
planta monitoring, post-transcriptional gene silencing, strawberry, transgenesis, transient
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The consumption of fruits, mainly berries, has been associated with beneficial health properties. These properties would be related to the quantity and quality of the metabolites present. Some native berries from the Andes, such as Andean elderberry, would be an important source of metabolites with bioactive properties. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate at the physico-chemical and metabolomic level the characteristics of the elderberry from four different high Andean regions, and to determine their bioactive potential through in vitro tests. RESULTS: Significant differences were found in the evaluated characteristics according to the Region of procedence of the…fruit. Glucose was the main sugar for all berry samples, followed by fructose. Among the most important organic acids, citric and malic acid were found. Elderberry from Apurimac presented the highest content of total sugars and lower content of total acids in comparison to the samples from other procedences. UPLC-PAD results indicate that Junin elderberries presented the highest value of total phenolic compounds with high contents of flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids and anthocyanins. Andean elderberry presented cyanidin 3-O -glucoside and cyanidin 3-O -sambubioside as main anthocyanins as well as their respective isomers. All samples showed inhibition activities against the different evaluated enzymes. Elderberries from Apurimac and Junín, displayed the lowest values of IC50 for the inhibition of α -amylase and α -glucosidase, while for the inhibition of lipase and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE-I) elderberries from Junín displayed the lowest IC50 values. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that Andean elderberry could be considered as an important source of bioactive compounds with properties that could be highlighted by the nutraceutical and functional food industries.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Heterocyclic aromatic amines are formed during thermal processing of meat and are known to be mutagenic and carcinogenic factors, while the consumption of fruit and vegetables decreases the risk of cancer. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate if berry fruit juices, a rich source of antioxidants (polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, ascorbate), may protect DNA from damages induced by the heterocyclic amine 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4, 5-b)pyridine (PhIP). METHODS: Lymphocytes isolated from healthy volunteers were treated with 25–100 μM PhIP in the presence or absence of pressed berry juice (0.1%) from: bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus ), chokeberry (Aronia…melanocarpa ), cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos ), raspberry (Rubus idaeus ), rosehips (Rosa rugosa ), sea-buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ), Noni (Morinda citrifolia ) and Goji (Lycium barbarum ). Antioxidant power, polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins and ascorbate concentration in juices were determined. DNA damage was measured using comet assay. RESULTS: Berry juices were not genotoxic and caused an overall significant decrease in oxidative stress and DNA damage induced by PhIP. The antioxidant properties depend on concentration of polyphenols in juice. CONCLUSIONS: Northern Hemisphere berries bear the negative effects of food mutagens. Berries as natural source of polyphenols should be recommended in daily diet for maintaining health.
Keywords: Chemoprevention, DNA damage, oxidative stress, heterocyclic amines, berries, PhIP
Abstract: BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in cover crops for orchards and vineyards to help control weeds and thereby reduce the need for tillage or herbicide applications. However, there is concern that cover crops may compete with the vines for mineral nutrition. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to study how two different soil management practices (tillage and cover crop) affected the nutrient content of clusters and leaves of table grape vines. METHODS: In 2015 and 2016, the effect of soil management practices on the concentration of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium and sulphur in…leaves and clusters of Italia table grape vines (Vitis vinifera L.) in a vineyard located in Puglia (South-eastern Italy) was determined, throughout the growing season. RESULTS: Nutrient concentrations in leaves and fruit varied during phenological stages each growing season, and there were significant differences induced by the two soil management practices. A cover crop increased the content of calcium and sodium in clusters and phosphorous and sulphur in leaves. No deficiencies were noticed in the two years and yields were similar regardless of soil management practices. CONCLUSIONS: This study, carried out in an irrigated table grape vineyard, showed that cover crops could be used as sustainable soil management strategies without significant influence on yield and fruit quality with respect to vines subjected to traditional tillage. Moreover, nutrient concentrations in leaves and clusters was almost similar in the two treatments with only few exceptions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Lycium barbarum L. has received considerable attention due to nutritional value of berries and its cultivation in Europe has attracted growing interest. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was characterization of Lycium barbarum L. berry cultivated in North Macedonia in terms of nutritional and functional properties and comparison with Lycium chinense M. variety. METHODS: Minerals, total proteins, sugars, antioxidant activity, fatty acids, carotenoids and polyphenols were determined and lipid indices were evaluated. Principal Component Analysis was used to describe variability of composition, while heat map to recognize the parameters significantly different for…varieties. RESULTS: Lycium barbarum L. cultivated in North Macedonia represents a rich source of K, Cu, Mn, P, Zn, Mg, Fe and antioxidant compounds. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly linolenic acid) were dominant in oil resulting in very low atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. A variability of 35.1% was ascribed to minerals, carbohydrates and proteins, 22.3% to ω -6 fatty acids and lipid indices of oil, 19.4% to nutrients with antioxidant activity and 13.4% to ω -3 fatty acids (n-3 and n-3/n-6 ratio). CONCLUSIONS: Chemometric analysis highlighted significant differences in terms of inorganic nutrients, antioxidant capacity, proteins, sugar profile and lipid indices in Lycium barbarum L. compared to Lycium chinense M.
Lycium barbarum L.,
Lycium chinense M., mineral nutrient, fatty acid, antioxidant activity, unsupervised chemometrics
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Vaccinium is one of the largest genera (ca. 500 species) of Ericaceae, well known for its edible and ornamental uses. Although there is certain karyological knowledge, information about genome size (GS) is scarce in the genus. OBJECTIVE: The main goal is providing GS data for several Vaccinium species with prevalence in Europe and Western Asia and analysing global GS variation in the genus, considering available data and phylogenetic context. METHODS: New GS assessments were obtained by flow cytometry and chromosome counts were verified. Phylogenetic analyses (using nuclear ITS, and chloroplastic mat K and…ndh F) were performed by Bayesian inference and reconstruction of ancestral GS by maximum parsimony. RESULTS: We obtained GS data for five Vaccinium species (13 populations). Three species are reported for the first time. Values (2C) ranged between 1.16–1.47 pg at the diploid (2n = 24) and between 3.13–3.16 pg at the tetraploid (2n = 48) levels. The five species here investigated have been placed and analysed in a reconstructed phylogenetic background (including 68 taxa). CONCLUSIONS: GS values of Vaccinium can be considered “very small”. The preliminary reconstruction of ancestral GS would point to a reduction in Vaccinium , although more data is needed to establish global GS evolutionary trend in the genus.
Keywords: Berries, C-value, chromosome counts, flow cytometry, nuclear DNA amount, nuclear DNA content
Abstract: Background: Phytotherapy has an important role in the functional gastrointestinal and motility disorder prevention and treatment. Objective: The aims of our study were to analyze the chemical composition and the antispasmodic activity of the dry black chokeberry ethanolic extract, waste extract and the juice in the isolated rat ileum. Methods: The anthocyanins and flavonoids quantification was carried out by the spectrophotometric method using the HPLC instrument. The study examined the influence of the chokeberry preparations and cyanidin-3-O -galactoside, the main anthocyanin compound, on the spontaneous, acetylcholine and KCl-induced ileum smooth muscle contraction, as well as on…the contractions induced by histamine, CaCl2 and BaCl2 and contractions in the presence of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME). Results: In all the examined preparations, the most abundant compounds were anthocyanins, especially cyanidin heterosides. The highest content of polyphenols and anthocyanins was found in the chokeberry waste extract. Among the chokeberry preparations, the ethanolic extract had the highest flavonoid concentration. The chokeberry preparations and cyanidin-3-O -galactoside in a concentration dependent manner significantly relaxed the rat ileum spontaneous and induced contractions. The results demonstrated that the nitric-oxide pathway was not involved in the relaxant activity of the chokeberry extracts and juice. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that the chokeberry preparations were able to relax contractions in the isolated rat ileum.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Black mulberry fruits have high antioxidant capacity, exhibiting health protective properties. In order to exploit their entire dynamic though, elite genotypes must be vegetatively propagated. OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to assess the physiological, organoleptic, phytochemical and anti-carcinogenic (only of the best two genotypes) properties of eleven new black mulberry genotypes, compared to the elite hybrid Fengchisang and the possibility of easy asexual propagation through semi-hardwood and hardwood cuttings. METHODS: Fruits from eleven genotypes were analyzed for their organoleptic and physiological characteristics as well as for their total phenol, o-diphenol, flavonoid, flavanol, anthocyanin content and their…organic acid and sugar composition. The best two were also tested for anti-carcinogenic properties. Furthermore, the rooting potential of semi-hardwood and hardwood cuttings was also investigated. RESULTS: The genotypes differed regarding fruit characteristics and rooting potential. The principal component analysis lead to a grouping of genotypes, while one, ANS8, was grouped separately, exhibiting high antioxidant capacity and phenol content. ANS8 genotype reduced cancer cells viability more efficiently compared to Fengchisang. CONCLUSIONS: The ANS8 genotype exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, higher than Fengchisang and better anti-carcinogenic properties, which along with the ease of rooting, may become a valuable source of health promoting phytochemicals.