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The main objective of the
Journal of Berry Research is to improve the knowledge about quality and production of berries to benefit health of the consumers and maintain profitable production using sustainable systems.
The objective will be achieved by focusing on four main areas of research and development:
1. From genetics to variety evaluation
2. Nursery production systems and plant quality control
3. Plant physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as cultural management
4. Health for the consumer: components and factors affecting berries' nutritional value
Specifically, the journal will cover berries (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, cranberry currants, etc.), as well as grapes and small soft fruit in general (e.g., kiwi fruit). It will publish research results covering all areas of plant breeding, including plant genetics, genomics, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, plant physiology, plant pathology and plant development, as well as results dealing with the chemistry and biochemistry of bioactive compounds contained in such fruits and their possible role in human health. Contributions detailing possible pharmacological, medical or therapeutic use or dietary significance will be welcomed in addition to studies regarding biosafety issues of genetically modified plants.
Journal of Berry Research will feature reviews, research articles, brief communications, position papers, letters and patent updates.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The strawberry is one of the most intensively grown fruits worldwide but faces challenges by several severe diseases, such as powdery mildew (PM) caused by Podosphaera aphanis . OBJECTIVE: To understand the disease response process and identify critical defense-related genes which may be utilized for improving disease resistance in the strawberry. METHODS: We analyzed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of the RNA-seq data1 of two F. vesca accessions, Hawaii 4 (HW) and Yellow Wonder 5AF7 (YW), infected by PM and analyzed the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). RESULTS: There were 2310 and 1681…DEGs identified in HW and YW, respectively. The less-susceptible HW and the susceptible YW shared 1342 DEGs. More DEGs and higher expression levels of those DEGs were detected in HW than in YW. The DEGs contained 935 and 728 different domains in HW and YW, respectively, and many high-frequency domains were associated with response to abiotic/biotic stimuli. The DEGs have 16 expression profiles in each accession, and four profiles were significantly enriched in the “Plant-pathogen interaction” pathway, having the same degree of confidence in the co-expression network in each accession. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide insight into the global response to a challenging disease, powdery mildew, and contribute to the understanding of PM resistance which will facilitate the molecular breeding of strawberries.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: At the present time, the food industry is increasingly interested in the development of formulations with maqui-berry extracts as a rich source of bioactive compounds. Maqui, native to Chile, is a relatively new food raw material that is often called a “superfruit”, The berries of this plant are rich in anthocyanins, phenolic acids, and tannins; compounds that play an important role as sources of bioactive compounds in the health of consumers. Cryoconcentration, a technology that preserves thermolabile bioactive compounds by combining techniques of freezing-centrifugation, makes it possible to obtain concentrates with a greater content of bioactive compounds than traditional…methods of concentration. In this study, maqui fruits were pulped to obtain juice (J) and chaff. The chaff was subjected to aqueous extraction with distilled water in a ratio of 1 : 1 p/v to obtain maqui extract (E). Combined J and E were homogenized, and vacuum filtered to obtain the final extract (A), which was cryoconcentrated at – 30°C and then subjected to 3 continuous cycles of freezing-centrifugation and filtration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three continuous centrifugation-filtration cycles were used. The polyphenol content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method with gallic acid as a standard. Anthocyanins were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and total anthocyanin content was determined by the pH differential method the anthocyaninds present were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). RESULTS: After application of the cryoconcentration cycles assisted by centrifugation-filtration, the separation efficiency of solute was found to be maintained over 90%. The content of soluble solids significantly increased in the concentrated fractions and reached 54.2 °Brix at the end of the third cycle. Finally, the ratio of the concentration of total polyphenol and anthocyanin increased 2.8 and 6.7 times, with respect to the initial content in the maqui-berry extract. CONCLUSIONS: The maqui cryoconcentrate is a product with a large content of antioxidants and bioactive compounds commonly considered as functional characteristics. This concentration method also conserved the profile of anthocyanins present in maqui fruit extract. The efficient separation solutes and bioactive compounds achieved will permit scaling these process conditions to the industrial level. OBJECTIVE: To assess the process parameters and polyphenol-anthocyanin content of cryoconcentrates obtained from maqui-berry (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz).
Keywords: Aristotelia chilensis, maqui-berry, cryoconcentration, total polyphenols, total 39 anthocyanins, color
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Sambucus species have been used for various purposes. Many people know that some of the Sambucus species display high antioxidant activity, but it is much less well-known that they also contain harmful compounds – cyanogenic glycosides. OBJECTIVE: Different cyanogenic glycosides and phenolics were determined in three different Sambucus species (Sambucus nigra - black elderberry, Sambucus ebulus – dwarf elder and Sambucus racemosa - red elderberry) and their plant parts. METHODS: Their contents were quantified with the aid of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrophotometry (MS). RESULTS:…The highest values of harmful compounds accumulated in the leaves of black elderberry (1.03 mg/g DW) and the lowest in the leaves of red elderberry (0.001 mg/g DW). In contrast, dwarf elder (Sambucus ebulus ) contained the highest levels of beneficial phenolics in flowers (31.10 mg/g DW) and red elderberry berries the lowest, with only 0.58 mg per g DW. CONCLUSIONS: Dwarf elder was the richest in phenolics and in scope in cyanogenic glycosides. Its flowers and berries contained 40% higher total analyzed phenolic contents than black elderberry, which is considered to be rich in phenolic and antioxidant contents. It should be noted that dwarf elder additionally contained some other harmful compounds, for what further pharmacological studies should be carried out.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Vaccinium myrtillus L. is a valuable wild fruit species of conservation concern in the Tuscan Apennines (Italy). OBJECTIVE: The development of a micropropagation protocol for the conservation of this species in in vitro -banks for the year-round mass production of specific selected superior bilberry genotypes, maintaining the genetic variability of natural populations, avoiding genetic erosion. METHODS: Nodal segments from seedlings were cultured on mMS medium with zeatin or 2iP for multiplication and elongation stage, afterwards shoots were rooting in vitro and in vivo . The RAPD analysis was applied to lines obtained and…slow growth storage (4°C – darkness) was evaluated for the conservation. RESULTS: Zeatin concentration 9.1 μM was the most favorable for shoot proliferation. The activated charcoal was essential for in vitro rooting. Both in vitro and ex vitro methods were successfully used to root and acclimatize bilberry shoots. The RAPD analysis indicated a large genetic diversity among the micropropagated genotypes. Shoots were successfully in vitro preserved for up to 6 months with no apparent deterioration effect. CONCLUSIONS: In vitro propagation and conservation are fundamental tools for exploiting the whole potential of this wild crop species for breeding and genetic improvement purposes.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Berry fruits stand out for their high contents of anthocyanins responsible for their red-purple color. The region of Patagonia, Argentina, is a significant cultivar region of these fruits. Due to berries’ very short shelf-life, it is interesting the development of dehydrated products that can be stored at room temperature and still be a source of bioactive components and natural colorants. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of freeze-drying process and storage at 38°C on the levels of bioactive compounds and color, in lyophilized products based on blueberry, blackcurrant, elderberry and maqui berry…pulps from the El Bolsón area, Río Negro, Argentina. METHODS: Fruit pulps with addition of encapsulating agents (Maltodextrin/Arabic gum) were freeze-dried and evaluated for the content of monomeric anthocyanins, total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, color (CIELab parameters) and physical characteristics. RESULTS: The obtained freeze-dried powders showed high levels of retention of bioactive compounds, yielding between 68.2 and 99.6% of retention of polyphenols and anthocyanins depending on the fruit. Color parameters were also stable after freeze-drying and during 60 days of storage at 38°C. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained stable powder ingredients based on berries from Patagonia can be used as a source of bioactive compounds and pigments.
Abstract: Maqui berries are traded internationally for their extraordinary high antioxidant capacity. The traditional wildcrafting is being replaced by cultivated orchards of three selected clones of Aristotelia chilensis , suitable for commercial fruit production. In some shaded areas, low fruit set has been observed, thus the objective of this research was to evaluate the physiological responses to different light conditions in clones ‘Luna Nueva’, ‘Morena’, and ‘Perla Negra’ during two seasons. Plants were established in an experimental design under full sunlight (without cover), black net (50% shade), transparent polycarbonate, and both covers. Number of flowers, fruit, plant height and internode length,…as well as physiological traits, such as CO2 assimilation and transpiration rates, and water use efficiency were evaluated. The results indicated that quantity and quality of light affect the growth and fruit production in maqui with differences being genotype dependent. In all studied clones, shaded plants (50% of available solar radiation) grew taller and produced less flowers than those exposed to full sunlight. Since clone by cover interactions were significant, specific maqui clones should be recommended for different climate zones: ‘Morena’ seems to be more plastic when exposed to different light conditions than ‘Luna Nueva’ and ‘Perla Negra’.
Keywords: Light intensity, shade, CO2 assimilation, transpiration rate, photosynthesis, flowering, fruit set, growth, superfruit
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is still a major foodborne bacterial infectious agent in the USA and causes both diarrheal disease and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). As antibiotic therapy is not an option, appropriate antimicrobial or inhibitor against EHEC colonization/infections is urgently needed. OBJECTIVE: Develop an appropriate natural antimicrobial and stimulate host defense to control foodborne illnesses with EHEC. METHOD: We investigated the role of chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa ) pomace (byproducts) extract (CPE) on growth and survival of EHEC EDL-933, probiotics specifically Lactobacillus , and other common gut bacterial flora including Streptococcus thermophilus , Enterococcus…faecalis and Bacillus subtilis . We also tested the effects of CPE on physicochemical properties, host cells-EHEC interactions, and expression of various virulence genes of EHEC. RESULTS: The growth of EHEC EDL-933 was reduced by 4 logs in the presence of 0.5 mg GAE/mL CPE at 5 hr while this concentration promoted the growth of Lactobacillus and common gut bacterial flora, S. thermophillus, E. faealis and B. subtilis . The abilities of EHEC to attach and invade host intestinal epithelial (INT-407) cells were also reduced significantly (p < 0.05) which was supported by alternation physiological properties of EHEC and virulence genes expression. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that CPE has the potential to be an effective therapeutic/preventive for EHEC EDL-933 without affecting the common gut microflora and probiotics.
Keywords: Chokeberry pomace, enterohemorrhagic E. coli, growth inhibition, cytotoxicity, probiotic
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Healthy benefits associated with strawberries consumption are mostly related to their antioxidant composition, mainly polyphenols. Quality assessment on fresh fruits is commonly done by spectrophotometric methods, but intake and digestion may alter their composition and healthy properties. To asses antioxidants bioavailability at different gastrointestinal-tract levels, in vitro digestion (IvD ) simulations are used but reagents involved in may interfere in antioxidant determinations despite depuration procedures are employed. OBJECTIVE: To test the magnitude of reagents interference in IvD approaches and the effectiveness of different depuration procedures for reliable antioxidant quantifications on strawberries. METHODS: IvD…assays were done with water and strawberry samples to obtain digested fractions (gastric and intestinal). After passing-through hydrophilic cotton, digested extracts were subjected to different depuration procedures: centrifugation, Sep-Pack and 0.45 μm nylon-filter. Antioxidant content and capacity were evaluated spectrophotometrically. RESULTS: IvD reagents interfered in all antioxidant determinations, especially in the intestinal fractions. Depuration procedures differed in their effectiveness for reagents removal and in their antioxidant retrieval efficiency, with hydrophilic cotton displaying better recovery efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Reagents interference should be considered for antioxidant content and capacity determinations after IvD but, for reliable estimations of healthy compounds of food matrices, depuration methods should prioritize antioxidant recovery over reagents removal.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: There is a search for raspberry cultivars with high sensory quality. The best way to determine sensory quality is by descriptive analysis. To perform sensory analysis by a trained panel is, however, not always feasible. Therefore, there is a need for instrumental measurements that correlate with sensory attributes. OBJECTIVE: To characterize eight genotypes of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) and to correlate sensory attributes with instrumentally determined quality. METHODS: Raspberry fruits were analysed by descriptive sensory analysis and by instrumental measurements, i.e. colour, total monomeric anthocyanins, soluble solids (SS), pH, titratable acidity (TA) and volatile…compounds. The relationships between sensory attributes and instrumentally measured quality were determined by partial least square regression and by univariate correlation analysis. RESULTS: Sour and green odours/flavours versus chemical and cloying odours/flavours described most of the sensory variation of the raspberry genotypes. TA correlated with acidic taste, astringency and flavour intensity. SS/TA was positively correlated with sour flavour and sweet taste and negatively correlated with acidic taste and astringency. C6-aldehydes and (Z )-3-hexen-1-ol correlated positively with green flavour. β-ionone and α -ionone correlated with flower odour and flavour, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Eight raspberry genotypes were characterized. Important sensory attributes could be predicted by instrumental measurements.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In red raspberries, two fruiting traits are distinguished, and classified as primocane and floricane fruiting. Primocane cultivars represent greater economic relevance; they are adapted to warm climate zones and have an elongated production period. However, this classification can be complicated since fruiting is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. In ‘Heritage’, the main cultivar used in Chile, flowering is inhibited in shoots produced the first season when grown in temperate zones with low thermal oscillation. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of cold temperature during shoot growth on fruiting parameters in different genotypes. METHODS:…Plants of the cultivars ‘Autumn Bliss’, ‘Heritage’, ‘Meeker’ and ‘Tulameen’ were tested at low night temperatures. We evaluated these growing characteristics for each cultivar; days until to first visible floral button, number of floral laterals and meristematic bud differentiation. We also analysed the variations associated with expression of the gene Ri TFL1, on flowering inhibition. RESULTS: There is an effect of temperature on flowering, growth and Ri TFL1 expression, mainly in cvs. ‘Heritage’ and ‘Meeker’. Flowering was enhanced in ‘Heritage’, while ‘Meeker’ exhibited an intermediate behaviour, since seasonal shoots managed to flower with a 60-night cold treatment. In both cultivars, growth was reduced, and Ri TFL1 was repressed in cold treated plants. CONCLUSIONS: Genotypes with intermediate behaviour require low temperatures for floral induction, which could be associated with Ri TFL1 gene repression with low-temperature treatments.
Keywords: Induction, vernalisation, primocane, floricane, flowering, raspberry, low temperature