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The main objective of the
Journal of Berry Research is to improve the knowledge about quality and production of berries to benefit health of the consumers and maintain profitable production using sustainable systems.
The objective will be achieved by focusing on four main areas of research and development:
1. From genetics to variety evaluation
2. Nursery production systems and plant quality control
3. Plant physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as cultural management
4. Health for the consumer: components and factors affecting berries' nutritional value
Specifically, the journal will cover berries (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, cranberry currants, etc.), as well as grapes and small soft fruit in general (e.g., kiwi fruit). It will publish research results covering all areas of plant breeding, including plant genetics, genomics, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, plant physiology, plant pathology and plant development, as well as results dealing with the chemistry and biochemistry of bioactive compounds contained in such fruits and their possible role in human health. Contributions detailing possible pharmacological, medical or therapeutic use or dietary significance will be welcomed in addition to studies regarding biosafety issues of genetically modified plants.
Journal of Berry Research will feature reviews, research articles, brief communications, position papers, letters and patent updates.
Abstract: BACKGROUND:: In dioecious plants, morphological adjustment to climate change may differ between male and female individuals due to greater reproductive effort in females. Not accounting for sexual variation could lead to incorrect assessment of a species response to climate change. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess how important gender-specific responses are to Hippophae rhamnoides in changing trans-Himalayan environments. METHOD: Leaf morphological characters of male and female Hippophae rhamnoides individuals along an altitudinal gradient (2797-4117 m) and plants raised in ‘common-garden’ experiment was measured. RESULTS: Leaves become smaller in length and…area, but became thicker with decreasing specific leaf area (SLA) with increasing altitude in both the gender. Leaf size, area, thickness, chlorophyll and petiole length were found to be higher in males than in females, while female had a higher SLA. When cuttings from the plants were grown in a common-garden experiment, the altitudinal effect disappeared for all morphological variables suggesting that most leaf morphological variation in H. rhamnoides is environmentally determined. In the event of climate change, our study showed that phenotypic plasticity would be a crucial determinant of plant response in mountainous region. Effect of altitudinal gradient on leaf morphology was more conspicuous in males suggesting that males are more responsive to change in environmental conditions.. CONCLUSION: The results suggested that males will adapt better to the changing climate and may lead to a male-biased population in the event of climate change. Stressful environments cause added detrimental impact on female than on male.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), degraded from chitosan, has been proved as an effective plant immunity elicitor, eco-friendly, easily soluble in water and influenced several secondary metabolites content to improve fruit qualities. OBJECTIVE: The effects of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) on the quality and ripening related gene expression of strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa cv. qingxiang ) during storage were investigated in this study. METHODS: COS was dissolved in distilled water at a concentration of 50 and 100 mg·L–1 . Then the fruits were dipped in COS solution and the control group was dipped in equal amount of distilled…water for 1 minute. After that the fruits were air-dried and stored at 20±0.5°C with 80±2% relative humidity. RESULTS: COS treated fruits significantly delayed the loss of hardness, total sugar and ascorbate content. In addition, COS treatments had positive effect on maintaining higher concentration of total phenol, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity. Moreover, COS treatments also had positive effect on inhibition of relative gene expression of cell wall polysaccharides degradation pathways, including pectate lyase (FaPL ), pectin esterase (FaPE ) and endoglucanase (FaEG ) and ethylene biosynthesis (FaACS and FaACO ) pathway. These findings suggest that the use of COS 100 mg·L– 1 postharvest treatment is useful for maintaining quality and storage life of strawberry fruits. CONCLUSION: COS postharvest treatment appeared to have a beneficial impact on the quality retention, maintained lower activities of cell wall degradation and the ethylene biosynthesis pathway by suppressing the gene expression during storage of strawberry.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Nutrient solution composition affects plant growth, yield and fruit quality. Nitrate, ammonium and urea are absorbable forms of nitrogen for plants however each form can have different effects on plant growth aspects. Urea is a low cost source of nitrogen and urease enzyme is activated by nickel (Ni), so using these nutrients may be beneficial for strawberry plant growth. The influence of different nutrient solution on strawberry cv. “Paros” growth, enzymatic activity and leaf mineral content was studied in this research at Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to understand the role of Ni and…different forms of nitrogen in the hydroponic culture on growth, nutrient composition and enzyme activity of strawberry plants, to identify whether a combination of different nitrogen form, especially urea and Ni, would improve plant growth and quality. METHODS: The effects of nitrate: ammonium: urea ratios (75:25:0, 50:25:25, 25:25:50, 25:0:75 and 0:0:100) and nickel sulfate concentration (0, 1 and 2 mg/L) in nutrient solutions were evaluated on strawberry cv. ‘Paros’ growth, mineral nutrient, and enzymatic activity. The trial was laid out as a factorial experiment with a completely randomized design. Rooted strawberry daughter plants were potted in 3 liter pots filled with cocopeat: perlite (1:1). Application of treatments started after establishment of the plants and continued for 5 months. RESULTS: Urea (25% and 50%) and nickel (1 mg/L) adding in the nutrient solution improved plant shoot and root dry weights. However, greater urea concentrations in the nutrient solution decreased nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous contents in leaves, but increased iron concentration. Urea concentration in strawberry leaves decreased when nickel concentration in the nutrient solution increased. Nitrate content in leaves of urea-fed plant decreased when urea concentration in nutrient solution increased. Urease activity increased with adding urea to the solution; however nitrate reductase activity was low at a high level of urea in nutrient solution. CONCLUSION: In addition to nitrate, adding nickel and urea in the nutrient solution improved growth and the enzymatic activity of strawberry plants, however it appeared that a higher rate of nickel and using urea as the only source of nitrogen was less beneficial. Overall, the best result was obtained from nickel at 1 mg/L and N source ratio of nitrate (50): ammonium (25): urea (25).
Keywords: Urease, nitrate, nickel, mineral nutrients, Fragaria × ananassa Duch
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Vaccinium meridionale is a fruit rich in polyphenols, with coloring and antioxidant properties. OBJECTIVE: Decoctions of the fruit were prepared and the effect of temperature, time and pH on oxidative stability and color parameters were evaluated. METHODS: To evaluate the oxidative stability the ORAC, FRAP, and DPPH methodologies and the quantification of phenols and anthocyanins by spectrophotometric tests were developed, while colors parameters were determined using a colorimeter and UV- VIS spectrums. RESULTS: Rising the temperature from 60 to 100°C increased phenol content, FRAP and ORAC values up to 724.24 mg gallic acid/L,…978.51 mg ascorbic acid/L and 14172μ mol Trolox/L, respectively; anthocyanin content decreased above to 80°C. At pH of 3.60 to 7.40 the antioxidant and color properties were not altered, at pH 10 there was a reduction of the antioxidant activity of 48.9%, and loss of the red tones of the decoctions. CONCLUSION: The content of phenols increased with temperature, increasing the antioxidant capacity, however the anthocyanins were degraded above 80°C and 20 minutes of processing.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The use of two-floor bench bed systems to improve the strawberry productivity in Korea is increasing. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of different combinations of light intensity and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) concentration on photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, and fruit yield in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa ). METHODS: A two-floor bench bed system was used for light intensity treatments. CO2 fertilizer was supplied, from December 5 to January 30, when the concentration in a greenhouse fell below 700μmolmol– 1 , while the control received only ambient CO2 . RESULTS:…Strawberry plants that were grown under high light intensity in the upper bed had a higher photosynthesis rate than plants grown under low light intensity in the bottom bed; however, light intensity had a negligible effect on the stomatal conductance (Sc) and transpiration rate (Tr) of strawberry leaves. In contrast, CO2 fertilization lowered Sc and Tr values in strawberry leaves. Plants grown under low light intensity without CO2 fertilization had the highest chlorophyll fluorescence decrease ratio. Fruit yield was highest in plants grown under high light intensity, with CO2 fertilization having relatively little effect; however, CO2 fertilization stimulated the accumulation of anthocyanins. CONCLUSIONS: CO2 fertilization is effective in a two-floor bench bed system.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anthocyanins are the main pigments in red grapes, and have been detected in samples of wild grapevine berries. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of whether the phenolic composition of those plants differs from that presented by cultivated grapes, and assessing if some wild genotypes present some genetic characters of interest related to color accumulation during grape maturation. METHODS: The anthocyanin composition of 75 wild grapevines from different Iberian natural populations was studied by HPLC. The anthocyanins fingerprint of those genotypes was determined, and data were analysed by applying several statistical procedures. RESULTS:…Genotypes under study showed a considerable variability in their anthocyanin fingerprints, being possible to distinguish two great families and several great phenotypic groups. CONCLUSIONS: The anthocyanin fingerprint of wild grapevines differs among genotypes collected in different geographical regions, suggesting that the evolution of the biosynthetic pathway leading to anthocyanins is affected by the climatic conditions of different environments.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The strawberry is one of the most important small fruits; it is widely cultivated in the world and is sometimes subjected to drought stress. Investigating the effects of drought stress on cultivar related plant physiology is necessary to broaden the knowledge of resistance mechanisms to drought. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to investigate the morpho-physiological characteristics of drought tolerance and the relationships between these and strawberry fruit yield under short- and long-term drought stress conditions. METHODS: The effect of two strawberry cultivars, Queen Eliza and Parus, was examined under four moisture regimes. A short-term…stress for one month and a long-term stress for four months were undertaken in greenhouse condition. RESULTS: The analysis of variance indicated significant differences between the cultivars for carotenoid content, relative water content, relative water loss, stomatal conductance and quantum yield of photosystem II under short-term stress and stomatal conductance, carotenoid content and membrane stability under long-term stress. Correlation analysis revealed that yield correlated positively with relative water content and quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), under short- term and long- term stress. Using factor analysis, totally four factors were identified that accounted for 82.14% of the total variance. The factors were in decreasing order of influence yield components, photosynthesis, physiological characteristics and chlorophyll. CONCLUSIONS: Generally, ‘Parus’ was superior to ‘Queen Eliza’ in terms of measured traits under short and long-term stress conditions. It seems that measuring physiological traits is a convenient, simple and fast tool for screening genotypes for their drought tolerance.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Aerobic organisms are equipped with enzymatic defence against oxidative stress. However, protection might be also provided by nonenzymatic antioxidant compounds. Ruminants can make polyphenols bioavailable because of the unique properties of their digestive system. OBJECTIVE: It was assumed that chokeberry pomace may be considered as additive rich in plant antioxidants, able to be deposited in small ruminants muscle tissue. METHODS: The study was conducted, using native breeds of lamb - Polish Merino and Wrzosówka. The experimental animals received chokeberry pomace as an addition in amount 150 or 300 grams per each kg of basic feed.…Muscles obtained from lambs were assayed for antioxidative properties of enzymatic systems (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) and nonenzymatic compounds or their equivalents (total nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity, potential to scavenge the free DPPH radical, total polyphenols content) contained in tissues. RESULTS: Obtained results provide novel information about bioactivity, bioretention and potential applications of dietary polyphenols in livestock feeding. One of the important findings concerns activity of glutathione peroxidase in the saddle of Polish Merino’s animals (control group had activity of 376 nmol/min/mL, the group which received 150 g of chokeberry pomace had 468 nmol/min/mL, and 300 g of supplementation resulted in activity of 738 nmol/min/mL). The decreased peroxidation process related with malondialdehyde levels in saddle and leg (respectively) of the Polish Merino (control group - 7.50μ M, 7.75μ M, group with 150 g of chokeberry pomace 5.25μ M, 6.70μ M, and with 300 g of pomace- 3.63μ M, 3.83μ M) and Wrzosówka animals (control group - 5.5μ M, 11.5μ M, group with 150 g of chokeberry pomace addition - 4.25μ M, 10.4μ M, and with 300 g of pomace - 3.48μ M, 5.80μ M) is crucial in the context of animal health and meat quality. CONCLUSION: Since examined parameters related to oxidative status (malondialdehyde level, chemicals and physicochemical parameters) respond to chokeberry pomace addition, the later may bring many benefits connected with antioxidative cellular protection.
Abstract: Anthocyanins are plant pigments widely present in fruits and vegetables that exert health benefits as part of human diet. They exist in not glycosylated forms (anthocyanidins) and glycosylated forms . Anthocyanins have been studied for their ability to inhibit polysaccharide metabolism enzymes (such as α -glucosidase) and, therefore, attenuate hyperglycemia and modulate type II diabetes. The aim of the present work was to compare the inhibitory activity of anthocyanins with that of acarbose, a common α -glucosidase inhibitor, by evaluating IC50 and Km , to compare the inhibitory capabilities among different compounds in an in vitro study.…Our results showed that most of the anthocyanins studied presented lower IC50 values than acarbose; only Pn-3-glc presented IC50 value close to acarbose. Moreover, there was no difference in Km between complete competitive and complete non-competitive types of inhibition (T -test, p > 0.05). In conclusion, the anthocyanins and their degradation products work together on attenuating abilities of this sugar metabolism key enzyme, throughout competitive and non-competitive modes.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Berries are important sources of crucial dietary components such as vitamins and minerals, as well as various phytonutrients that may be potentially beneficial to human health and could be used against chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular disorders. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to identify and analyze the 100 most cited papers related to berry research. METHODS: The Scopus database was searched to extract data. Two of the authors independently evaluated the manuscripts for relevance. Bibliometric data, including citation count, were analyzed together with the words in the titles and abstracts of the 100 most…cited berry-related papers. RESULTS: Seventy-two of the 100 most cited papers were research articles. Most of them were published during the 2000s, and related to subject areas of agricultural and biological sciences (n = 64), biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology (n = 35), chemistry (n = 29), medicine (n = 24), and nursing (n = 10). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry was the dominating choice of publication outlet (n = 26). CONCLUSIONS: Antioxidant and anticancer benefits appeared to be the major subject terms. Berries that were mentioned in at least 10% of the 100 papers were strawberry, blueberry, cranberry, raspberry, blackberry, bilberry, and grape berry. The review could provide a valuable guide for designing future studies based on berries, berry extracts, and bioactive compounds.