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The main objective of the
Journal of Berry Research is to improve the knowledge about quality and production of berries to benefit health of the consumers and maintain profitable production using sustainable systems.
The objective will be achieved by focusing on four main areas of research and development:
1. From genetics to variety evaluation
2. Nursery production systems and plant quality control
3. Plant physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as cultural management
4. Health for the consumer: components and factors affecting berries' nutritional value
Specifically, the journal will cover berries (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, cranberry currants, etc.), as well as grapes and small soft fruit in general (e.g., kiwi fruit). It will publish research results covering all areas of plant breeding, including plant genetics, genomics, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, plant physiology, plant pathology and plant development, as well as results dealing with the chemistry and biochemistry of bioactive compounds contained in such fruits and their possible role in human health. Contributions detailing possible pharmacological, medical or therapeutic use or dietary significance will be welcomed in addition to studies regarding biosafety issues of genetically modified plants.
Journal of Berry Research will feature reviews, research articles, brief communications, position papers, letters and patent updates.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The chemical instability of extracted anthocyanins (ACNs) limits their application and broader use as food colorants and health-promoting functional ingredients. Encapsulation technology can improve ACN stability and widen their potential applications. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to optimize the microencapsulation of ACNs from haskap berries (Lonicera caerulea L.) in calcium-alginate particles by the extrusion/gelation method. METHODS: Response Surface Methodology (RSM) by Box-Behnken (BB) design was used for the optimization, followed by the desirability function. Three input variables were evaluated: concentrations of sodium alginate (x 1 , w/w %) and calcium chloride (x…2 , w/v %), and gelation time (x 3 , min). The responses were encapsulation efficiency (y 1 , %) and particle size (y 2 , μm). RESULTS: There was a good fit for the model where encapsulation efficiency was used as a separate response (R 2 = 97.98%), however, the model for particle size did not give as good an agreement (R 2 = 63.86%). The desirability function was used to optimize the two responses simultaneously and the optimum conditions were determined as 9.0% (w/w) alginate solution, 2.0% (w/v) CaCl2 , and 10 min in the gelation solution. CONCLUSIONS: These results illustrate the application of RSM followed by a desirability function to optimize encapsulation parameters for a combined response, where several measures are considered.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Lingonberries have been associated with a range of potential bioactivities related to their polyphenol content and composition, in particular anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin derivatives. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the anthocyanin composition of extracts of lingonberry and related Vaccinium berries with respect to previously unidentified anthocyanin-like components. METHODS: Extracts were prepared from lingonberries, blueberries and a commercial cranberry juice product and examined by liquid chromatography mass spectroscopic techniques (LCMSn ) before and after various fractionation steps. RESULTS: A range of discrete anthocyanin derivatives ethyl linked to (epi)catechin units were…identified in lingonberry extracts using LC-MSn methods. Analogous derivatives were detected in similar blueberry extracts, and confirmed in cranberry juices. CONCLUSIONS: Through a combination of fractionation techniques and LCMSn analysis, this paper provides the first evidence that anthocyanin-epicatechin derivatives linked by ethyl bridges are present in lingonberries and in blueberries. These discrete components may be the smallest in a series of proanthocyanidin derivatives with terminal anthocyanins linked through ethyl groups which have previously been inferred in cranberries using mass spectrometric techniques.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In the Northern hemisphere kiwifruit harvest time is conditioned by low temperatures occurring during the harvesting season while in Southern Italy minimum temperatures in autumn are high enough to support fruit growth and ripening. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of delayed harvest time on kiwifruit quality attributes. METHODS: The experiment was carried out in a commercial kiwifruit, ‘Hayward’, orchard located in Southern Italy. In this area, the conventional harvest time occurs 160 days after full bloom (DAFB), during the first decade of November. Fruits were collected from 130 DAFB to 192 DAFB. Fresh fruit and…dry weight, flesh color, firmness, total soluble solids content (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), ascorbic acid (AA), total polyphenols content (TPH) and antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined. RESULTS: After 120 days of storage, fruit harvested 178 DAFB, had higher fresh and dry weight, flesh firmness, TSS, TA and lower water loss than fruit harvested at 160 DAFB, with no significant differences in AA, TPH and TAC. TAC was correlated more to TPH than to AA. Early (130–158 DAFB) harvests, resulted in poor fruit quality and scarce post harvest maintenance. CONCLUSIONS: Delaying fruit harvest time, in mild winter areas such as Southern Italy, resulted in an improved fruit quality and increased the commercial value of the fruit.
Abstract: We evaluated the effectiveness of alternative fumigants on weed control, soil pests, plant growth and marketable roots production in a commercial nursery located at high-elevation and low latitude (Ciudad Guzman, Jalisco) during 2013 and 2014. Treatments were: Methyl bromide with chloropicrin (MB:CP); 1,3-dichloropropene:CP (1,3D:CP); CP alone; metam sodium (MS) alone; dimethyl disulphide with CP (DMDS:CP); and sequentially applied CP and MS (CP+MS). A Rotary Spading Machine was used for MS and CP followed by MS. All treatments except MS and CP+MS in 2014 controlled Rhizoctonia and all controlled Phytophthora in 2013, but none controlled Fusarium in soil.…No significant nematode, Verticillium and Pythium populations were detected in nursery soil before treatments. No diseased plants were observed throughout the cultivation cycle. Densities and fresh weights of graminoid weeds were significantly reduced by MB:CP and CP+MS, but none of the fumigants controlled all forbs. Only Echinochloa crus-galli , Digitaria spp., Sonchus oleraceus , and Amaranthus hybridus densities and biomass were reduced 50–78% by all fumigants. The highest commercial yield of raspberry roots and plant emergence were recorded with MB:CP and 1,3D:CP, while CP and MS only increased plant emergence. Finally, two years of work on MB alternatives were not sufficient to provide reliable recommendations on this critical need, therefore MBTOC recommended CUN for MB in 2015.
Abstract: Strawberry fruit are delicate and succulent, and after harvest they can commonly undergo fungal spoilage. The main strawberry pathogen is Botrytis cinerea , followed by Rhizopus stolonifer , Mucor spp., Colletotrichum spp., Penicillium spp., which are the major pathogens responsible for postharvest decay of strawberry fruit. The traditional strategy of control of postharvest strawberry decay rely on the application of fungicides during the crop growing cycle. Conventional fungicides are applied around flowering, and treatments can be repeated up to harvest. Nowadays, there are many alternatives to conventional fungicides that are characterized by low impact on the environment…and on human health. These include biological control agents, natural compounds, decontaminating agents, physical methods, and their combinations. According to an integrated pest-management approach, management of postharvest diseases starts before cultivation in the field, with the suitable choice of the strawberry variety, place of cultivation, and cultivation technique. This continues during the crop development, with weed control, soil sanitation, and management of water and humidity. Careful picking at harvest and then rapid and constant cold storage are the key factors to assure good quality of harvested strawberry fruit. A modified atmosphere that is enriched in ozone, oxygen, or carbon dioxide is frequently used during strawberry storage, to slow down senescence and reduce decay.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Phytophthora cactorum crown rot is currently limiting strawberry cultivation worldwide. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and bacterial endophytes have shown promising results as biological control against the disease. Growing medium can also influence biological control and e.g., composts have been shown to suppress soil borne pathogens. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of AMF, endophytic bacteria and different growing media against strawberry crown rot. METHODS: Three pot experiments were conducted in greenhouse conditions. Each experiment tested different biological control methods with micropropagated strawberry ‘Jonsok’ inoculated or not with the fungus.…The first experiment evaluated AMF strains on different growing media, the second experiment tested combinations of AMF and other biocontrol microbes. The third experiment tested the impacts of AMF, Pseudomonas fluorescens and compost. RESULTS: Biological control methods and disease inoculation had very different impacts on strawberries planted in different growing media. On suitable growing media, AMF increased growth and lowered disease symptoms, but P. fluorescens was not effective. The growing medium containing manure/wood fiber compost was the most disease suppressive. CONCLUSIONS: Biological control of strawberry crown rot with AMF is substrate dependent. Composts can be used to somewhat suppress crown rot.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that cherries, especially sour cultivars, contain substantial amounts of phenolic compounds. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to (i) analyze the total phenolic compound (TPC) content and the antioxidant capacity (AC) of a large range of cultivars using the same methodology in one laboratory, and (ii) determine the possible relationship between agronomic characteristics and AC. METHODS: A total of 245 samples including sweet, sour and hybrid cultivars from our collections were harvested at their optimum maturity and characterized according to their TPC, DPPH and ORAC values. RESULTS: The TPC content and…DPPH and ORAC values varied greatly among the cherries, with the sour cultivars presenting higher levels than the sweet ones. The PCA plot showed a slight grouping by species and confirmed the high TPC content level in sour cultivars. The bi-colored cultivars had lower TPC and antioxidant capacity (AC) values than dark-colored ones, indicating that coloration could give an indication of the AC of fruits. No significant relationship between the agronomic and chemical properties was highlighted. CONCLUSIONS: Cherry fruits, especially from sour cultivars, represent an important source of bioactive compounds and could attract new interest as a ‘functional food’.
Keywords: Sweet cherries, sour cherries, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic compounds