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The main objective of the
Journal of Berry Research is to improve the knowledge about quality and production of berries to benefit health of the consumers and maintain profitable production using sustainable systems.
The objective will be achieved by focusing on four main areas of research and development:
1. From genetics to variety evaluation
2. Nursery production systems and plant quality control
3. Plant physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as cultural management
4. Health for the consumer: components and factors affecting berries' nutritional value
Specifically, the journal will cover berries (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, cranberry currants, etc.), as well as grapes and small soft fruit in general (e.g., kiwi fruit). It will publish research results covering all areas of plant breeding, including plant genetics, genomics, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, plant physiology, plant pathology and plant development, as well as results dealing with the chemistry and biochemistry of bioactive compounds contained in such fruits and their possible role in human health. Contributions detailing possible pharmacological, medical or therapeutic use or dietary significance will be welcomed in addition to studies regarding biosafety issues of genetically modified plants.
Journal of Berry Research will feature reviews, research articles, brief communications, position papers, letters and patent updates.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The Strawberry is an economically important crop in Poland. However, the production of strawberries is difficult and costly, as pests and pathogens causing diseases often damage plants. The strawberry mite - Phytonemus pallidus (Banks) is the most dangerous among pests and one of the most difficult to control. In the past, active substances such as Endosulfan, Amitraz and Propargite, were used to control the pest but they have been withdrawn from the pest control program a few years ago. OBJECTIVE: The intention of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Abamectin and fungus Beauveria bassiana…to control the strawberry mite on strawberry plants in the open field, as well as the susceptibility of selected strawberry varieties and genotypes to the pest. METHODS CONTROL EXPERIMENTS: Studies were performed on ‘Honeoye’ plants. Naturalis (Beauveria basiana ) at a dose of 1.0–1.5 l/ha+adjuvant Protector (pine resins) at a dose of 0.3 l/ha, Naturalis – 1.0 l/ha+TerraSorb® Complex SB (α – amino acids, biostimulants) – 1.5 l/ha (2013) and Vertimec 018 EC (abamectin) at a dose of 1.0 l/ha were estimated. The population of strawberry mite was notated both before, and after the application of the tested products. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CULTIVARS: The observations of the strawberry mite presence on the strawberry cultivars, were carried out in years 2012–2013 on an experimental cultivar trial plantation. The population of the pest was counted on strawberry leaves, taken from plants of different varieties and genotypes. RESULTS: Vertimec 018 EC showed good efficacy in the control of the strawberry mite, but the long-lasting effect was observed only following two applications of the product. Naturalis (Beauveria bassiana )+Protector proved to be more effective than the treatment of Naturalis+TerraSorb® Complex, however the pest control was poorer and of short duration than after application of Vertimec 018 EC. CONCLUSIONS: In experiments carried out in the open field Abamectin proved to be more effective than Naturalis. Some strawberry varieties such as ‘Dukat’, ‘Flair’, ‘Real’, ‘Salut’, ‘Vima Rina’, ‘Malling Pearl’ were not infested by to strawberry mite - the pest specimens were not observed on experimental plots within two years of this experiment. A high population of the strawberry mite was noted on strawberry cultivars such as ‘Evita’, ‘Hokent’, ‘Albion’, ‘Feriusz’, ‘Honeoye’ and ‘Karel’.
Keywords: Strawberry, strawberry mite, Phytonemus pallidus, chemical control, biological control, abamectin, Vertimec 018 EC, Naturalis - Beauveria bassiana, varieties susceptibility
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Blueberry cultivars with very firm, crisp fruit textures have been developed to increase consumer acceptance and as an aid in production and marketing. The basis for the crisp fruit texture is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare the bioyield force (BF) and cell wall composition of crisp and standard texture blueberry genotypes. METHODS: Bioyield force of seven southern highbush blueberry genotypes having standard (‘Springhigh’, ‘Star’, Windsor') and crisp (‘Sweetcrisp’, FL06-561, FL06-562, and FL98-325) fruit texture was measured on fresh, whole fruits. Dry weight, alcohol insoluble residue (AIR), uronic acids (UA), and…neutral sugars (NS) were then measured on separated flesh and skin tissue. RESULTS: The BF of the standard texture genotypes was significantly less than all four crisp genotypes. There were differences in the dry weight and AIR among genotypes, but these differences did not correspond to crisp and standard texture classes. There was no significant difference among genotypes in the measurement of UA or NS. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm that there is a phenotypic difference between crisp and standard texture blueberry genotypes that can be detected with BF measurements, but that quantitative differences among total cell wall material, pectins, and neutral sugars were not responsible for the variability of these texture types.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: During the late spring of 2013 strawberry plants grown under protection (Fragaria x ananassa cv. Elsanta) were found at several locations in the Netherlands showing an intense brown to black discoloration of their immature fruits, their fruit calyx and the attached stems. OBJECTIVE: Identification of a new bacterial disease on strawberry. METHOD: Identification and characterization was based on the requirements of EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization), followed by a pathogenicity test on strawberry plants for verification of the virulence. RESULTS: The isolates exhibited biochemical profiles closely related to Erwinia…pyrifoliae reference strain LMG 25888. The isolates were further identified as E. pyrifoliae based on the real time PCR assay. Pathogenicity of several isolates was tested and confirmed on potted strawberry plants (cvs. Elsanta and Selva). CONCLUSION: Erwinia pyrifoliae is a pathogen on strawberry. Thus far occurrence of this pathogen on strawberry has not been reported nor its presence outside Asia.
Keywords: Erwinia, strawberry, bacterial disease, fire blight
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Grey mould Botrytis cinerea is the most common fruit rot disease in strawberries and shelf-life is often limited because of Botrytis . Generally the disease is controlled by spraying chemical products. OBJECTIVE: To prevent resistance and to produce strawberries with fewer residues, it is required to find alternatives. In this study, bumblebees were used as vector to transport the antagonistic fungus Gliocladium catenulatum J1446 to the flowers in order to control Botrytis . METHODS: A trial was conducted in strawberries grown in a plastic greenhouse. Bumblebees leaving the special hive become loaded with…the microbial product. The following strategies were compared: untreated control, conventional chemical spray scheme, spray application with G. catenulatum or fenhexamid, G. catenulatum (vectored). The last strategy is also tested with an additional spraying with G. catenulatum (1x) or fenhexamid (1x). Botrytis infection and yield were evaluated. RESULTS: Spray applications with G. catenulatum (3x) or Teldor (1x) did not reduce the Botrytis infection in this trial. G. catenulatum vectored by bumblebees reduced grey mould, and was comparable with the conventional chemical treatment scheme. Additional sprayings with G. catenulatum or fenhexamid did not generate an additional reduction. CONCLUSIONS: This greenhouse trial demonstrates that G. catenulatum vectored by bumblebees can reduce Botrytis infection and improve shelf-life of strawberries at low to moderate disease pressure. This results in a more sustainable control with healthier strawberries with fewer residues.
Keywords: Fragaria x ananassa Duch., grey mould, residues, biological control
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L .) is considered an interesting fruit as food ingredient, due to its high content of anthocyanins that give products an attractive red colour. OBJECTIVE: The aim of present study was to evaluate the kinetics of elderberry monomeric anthocyanin (MAcy) and colour degradation due to thermal processing and storage. METHODS: Anthocyanins content was measured with pH-differential method. CIELab parameters were obtained with a Minolta Spectrophotometer, total phenolics were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. MAcy degradation and evolution of colour parameter a* were fitted to a first–order model. RESULTS: The degradation rate of…a* was about three times lower than MAcy degradation rate. Activation energy for degradation of a* and MAcy were 140.6 and 144.6 kJ mol−1 respectively. Degradation rates (k) obtained during storage were 0.025 d−1 for MAcy and 0.0064 d−1 for a* . During storage, 50% reduction of initial values was at 120 days for MAcy and at 432 days for colour parameter a* at 25°C. However, a high retention of polyphenols and antioxidant was noted. CONCLUSIONS: Kinetic parameters calculated for elderberry juice can be used to design a thermal treatment to obtain a high retention of colour and bioactive compounds.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Drosophila suzukii became one of the most dangerous pests in fruit crops and vineyards in Europe since 2009. Lacking knowledge of the overwintering biology under European environmental conditions makes an environmentally friendly control of this invasive pest difficult. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate its hibernation capability under the climatic conditions of South Tyrol, Italy. METHODS: Monitoring flight activity by baited traps revealed an overwintering location in the Adige valley. We determined the reproductive status of females trapped weekly at “Schlossleiten” from August 2012 until September 2013 by dissecting their abdomens.…For further potential correlation between overwintering locations, reproductive status, and climatic conditions were assessed. RESULTS: The microclimatic conditions of single locations affected overwintering success and suggest the aggregation of adults in most favourable hibernation sites where a high proportion of females is able to survive. However, in spring some of the females showed degenerated reproductive organs. Dissection of abdomens evinced a reproductive diapause, which appears to be affected by winter climatic conditions, the nutritional status, and food availability. CONCLUSIONS: D. suzukii is able to overwinter in the South Tyrolean area. Control and management of the potential hibernation sites may delay the population dynamics in the following season.