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The main objective of the
Journal of Berry Research is to improve the knowledge about quality and production of berries to benefit health of the consumers and maintain profitable production using sustainable systems.
The objective will be achieved by focusing on four main areas of research and development:
1. From genetics to variety evaluation
2. Nursery production systems and plant quality control
3. Plant physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as cultural management
4. Health for the consumer: components and factors affecting berries' nutritional value
Specifically, the journal will cover berries (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, cranberry currants, etc.), as well as grapes and small soft fruit in general (e.g., kiwi fruit). It will publish research results covering all areas of plant breeding, including plant genetics, genomics, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, plant physiology, plant pathology and plant development, as well as results dealing with the chemistry and biochemistry of bioactive compounds contained in such fruits and their possible role in human health. Contributions detailing possible pharmacological, medical or therapeutic use or dietary significance will be welcomed in addition to studies regarding biosafety issues of genetically modified plants.
Journal of Berry Research will feature reviews, research articles, brief communications, position papers, letters and patent updates.
Abstract: Raisins are dried grapes of seedless varieties. Two types are produced in Greece: the Zante currants or Corinthian raisins, and the sultana or Sultanina. Raisin production includes 3 steps: a pre-treatment (optional), drying, and post-drying process. The pre-treatment methods are not usually applied prior to the drying of the traditional Greek raisins, with the exception of Sultanina of Crete which may or may not be subject to a pre-treatment method. There are three types of drying methods: sun drying, shade drying, and mechanical drying. Traditional Greek raisins are naturally dried (sun or shade) with the exception of Sultanina of Crete,…that may be dried naturally or mechanically. Raisins are a popular and healthy snack, which provide essential nutrients, soluble and insoluble fiber and health protective phytochemicals. Raisins provide many necessary vitamins and minerals, including iron, potassium, calcium and certain B vitamins. They also have extremely high boron content, a trace element considered important for the growth and maintenance of healthy bones. Cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disease prevention effects have been attributed to raisin consumption. So raisins, a product with considerable potential for the agricultural and export sector, are also considered an exceptional snack with health promoting properties.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Rubus croceacanthus is a wild berry grown in Okinawa, Japan, and is consumed fresh because of its sweetness. In addition, this fruit is processed into jam and jelly, and used in food such as doughnuts in Okinawa. In our anti-melanogenesis screening program, the methanol extract of R. croceacanthus showed the whitening activity on B16 mouse melanoma cells. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate anti-melanogenetic activity of the extract of R. croceacanthus and find the active components in it. METHOD: The anti-melanogenetic activity was examined using B16 cells. To…reveal the mechanism underlying the anti-melanogenic activity, the inhibition of tyrosinase which is the key enzyme in melanogenesis was measured. Furthermore, we analyzed the constituents of R. croceacanthus to investigate the active compounds. RESULTS: The extract of R. croceacanthus had an anti-melanogenic effect in B16 cells. We found that this effect was caused by cyanidin-3-O -glucoside and pelargonidin-3-O -glucoside due to inhibit tyrosinase activity, resulting in decreasing melanin content in B16 cells. We also identified two ellagitannins, lambertianin C and sanguiin H-6, which may contribute to the anti-melanogenic effect. CONCLUSIONS: The fruit of R. croceacanthus has the anti-melanogenic activity and potential to be utilized as a skin-whitening agent.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The exogenous application of nitric oxide (NO) has proved to protect plant against deleterious impact of salinity. OBJECTIVE: The probable influence of application timing has been neglected in most studies. In order to evaluate the influence of application timing of NO on ‘Selva’ strawberry plants the following experiments were carried out. METHOD: After establishment of ‘Selva’ daughter plants they were sprayed using 50 or 75 μM NO solution (Sodium nitroprusside was used as NO donor), one week before, simultaneously and one week after start of an established 40 mM NaCl salinity stress. RESULTS:…Indicated that saline conditions had adverse influence on plants and that NO at both concentrations ameliorated these salinity effects as plants treated with 50 or 75 μM of NO had larger shoot and root dry weight, higher number of inflorescences and quality parameters such as TSS in comparison to salinity stress exposed plants. Time of application was important, and plants treated with NO one week before beginning of salinity stress had highest ameliorative effect. CONCLUSION: It seems that application of NO prior the stress increases the stress avoidance strategy of plants.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: European blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.; EB) is one of the most common shrubs in Nordic forests. It has been exploited through centuries by man and is considered a valuable food. However, it has not been domesticated and all EB fruit is harvested from forest fields. The investigations reported here were undertaken to examine the possibility of EB domestication. OBJECTIVE: With the aid of knowledge achieved through examinations of EB in natural forests and in cultivated fields of lowbush blueberry, the following trials were started to examine if EB could be grown on rich farmland by…adaption of fertilization and addition of natural peat as mulch; and by planting EB mats from a forest field and EB seedlings in a strip of top soil (O-layer) from the same field, with the aim to introduce ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) fungi. METHOD: The experiments were performed as two field trials (A and B) on agricultural land. Trial A was a block design with four replications, examining the effect on plant growth of nine randomly broadcasted fertilization levels combining nitrogen and phosphorus on fresh planted EB seedlings. In addition, two out of four blocks were randomly mulched with natural peat. Trial B was a split-plot design with three blocks. Each block consisted of two large plots and each large plot contained two small plots. Two fertilization levels were randomly broadcasted in large plots, and two plant types [small plug seedlings propagated in sparsely fertilized peat; and mats of (30 × 20) cm2 from a nearby forest field existing of O-layer and some of the E-layer (wash out soil layer)] were randomly planted in small plots. Seedling plants of trial B (similar plants as in Trial A) were planted in shallow furrows filled with forest soil. Fertilization were N0P0 (control; no fertilizer), and N1P1 (fertilized similar to a medium treatment of trial A). The seedling plants were in a juvenile phase in the year of planting, but the first fruits were observed in the third field year. This indicate that the plants had entered the generative phase. RESULTS: In trial A fertilization increased spatial growth of EB plants and fruit number. However, P alone did not have any significant effect since the level in the soil was high already before establishing the experimental field. Fertilizing with N alone was most effective in terms of spatial growth and fruit number. However, when P fertilizer was applied together with N fertilizer, plant growth and fruit number increased more than when N was applied alone. Fertilization also increased levels of P and S in the soil. Top-dressing had positive effect on growth in the non-fertilized plots. Fertilization of top-dressed plots resulted in poorer plant growth except for N alone and strongest combined fertilization, and there was no clear effect on fruit number. In plots that were not fertilized top-dressing increased total amount of C, N, Ca and Mg. In trial B mycorrhiza was present in all plots and probably influenced the uptake of nutrients by EB. It is of interest that some of the observed ericoid mycorrhiza was apparently formed by basidiomycetous hyphae. CONCLUSIONS: EB grown on agricultural land, were juvenile seedlings in trial A, was strongly influenced by NP fertilization. Fertilization with N gave stronger growth than fertilization with P; however, plants fertilized with P grew better than control. Also, fertilization had positive influence on fruit number, either fertilizing with N alone or in combination with P. Top-dressing with natural peat had positive influence on spatial growth, but no clear effect on fruit number. In trial B ericoid mycorrhizal colonization was present in all treatments in both seedlings (juvenile phase) and established plants in mats (generative phase), and it probably influenced uptake of nutrients. It could be suggested that growing EB on cultivated land is possible, but preferably on a more acid soil than in these trials.
Keywords: Soil, nitrogen, phosphorous, mycorrhiza, plant type
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Garcinia indica Choisy, a slender evergreen tree is endemic to the west coast of India. The dried rind of the fruit of Garcinia indica is an Indian spice and a food additive. Many therapeutic effects of the fruit have been reported in literature. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigates the cardioprotective and antioxidant activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of Garcinia indica fruit rind (GIE) in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were treated with GIE (400 & 800 mg/kg, po) daily for 30 days and administered ISO…(85 mg/kg, sc) on the last 2 days at an interval of 24 hr to induce myocardial injury. Activities of marker enzymes (AST, LDH and CK-MB) were assessed in serum and heart. The lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde and endogenous antioxidants viz., reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were assayed in heart. RESULTS: Significant myocardial necrosis, depletion of GSH levels, decrease in antioxidant and marker enzyme activities in the heart homogenate, elevation in malondialdehyde levels and an increase in serum levels of marker enzymes (AST, LDH & CK-MB) was observed in ISO treated rats when compared with normal rats. Pre-treatment of GIE to ISO treated rats resulted in a significant attenuation of the ISO-elevated levels of serum marker enzymes and malondialdehyde, and restoration of the levels of the ISO-depleted marker enzymes, reduced glutathione and antioxidant enzymes. The biochemical results were corroborated by electrocardiographic and histopathological findings. CONCLUSION: It may be concluded that GIE oral treatment to ISO challenged rats augments endogenous antioxidants of rat heart, enhances scavenging of free radicals and inhibits lipid peroxidation of membrane, thereby salvaging the myocardium from the deleterious effects of ISO.