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The main objective of the
Journal of Berry Research is to improve the knowledge about quality and production of berries to benefit health of the consumers and maintain profitable production using sustainable systems.
The objective will be achieved by focusing on four main areas of research and development:
1. From genetics to variety evaluation
2. Nursery production systems and plant quality control
3. Plant physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as cultural management
4. Health for the consumer: components and factors affecting berries' nutritional value
Specifically, the journal will cover berries (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, cranberry currants, etc.), as well as grapes and small soft fruit in general (e.g., kiwi fruit). It will publish research results covering all areas of plant breeding, including plant genetics, genomics, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, plant physiology, plant pathology and plant development, as well as results dealing with the chemistry and biochemistry of bioactive compounds contained in such fruits and their possible role in human health. Contributions detailing possible pharmacological, medical or therapeutic use or dietary significance will be welcomed in addition to studies regarding biosafety issues of genetically modified plants.
Journal of Berry Research will feature reviews, research articles, brief communications, position papers, letters and patent updates.
Abstract: In the last years, the nutritional quality of fruits has been widely evaluated and requested by consumers, mainly because of the health effects they provide. As known, these benefits can be due to micronutrients, as vitamins and minerals, but also to phenolic compounds, as flavonoids and ellagitannins. In this context, strawberries represent a very good choice for a diet low in saturated fats and sodium and, at the same time they are rich in fiber, potassium and other minerals, vitamins, and antioxidant phytochemicals: all elements that are currently considered as the essential constituents of a well-balanced diet. However, the nutritional…quality of strawberry fruits can be considerably affected by several pre-harvest and post-harvest conditions, which, in most cases, may decrease the nutrient and the phytochemical contents of this fruit. This paper reviews and updates the current knowledge on the nutritional and phytochemical composition of strawberry, paying particular attention on the role played by the genotype, the maturity, the environment, the storage and the processing on the nutritional quality of this fruit.
Abstract: In breeding programs wild strawberry species are used increasingly to enhance the genetic diversity and to implement higher sensory quality. Next to Fragaria moschata L. and F. viridis Weston wild collections cultivars of Fragaria vesca L. were the standards for strawberry taste in Europe before the development of Fragaria × ananassa Duch. around 250 years ago. Therefore, the objective of this research was the evaluation of patterns of volatile organic compounds including around twenty strawberry character impact compounds evaluated for Fragaria vesca and in comparison for standard cultivars of Fragaria × ananassa .…The metabolic patterns were measured using immersion-SBSE-GC-MS. Sixteen accessions of Fragaria vesca exhibit a high diversity in qualities and quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A specific fruit sampling strategy equalizes environmental caused variation and avoids misleading interpretations. The shown results are valuable for further breeding activities regarding flavor, transcriptomic analyses, studies of biochemical pathways and signaling compounds as well as marker development.
Keywords: Fragaria, aroma compounds, flavour, stir bar sorptive extraction, bio-diversity
Abstract: This paper describes a strawberry-harvesting robot, a packing robot, and a movable bench system. The harvesting and packing operations in strawberry production require harder, more time-consuming work compared to other operations such as transplanting and chemical spraying, making automation of these tasks desirable. Since harvesting and packing operation account for half of total working hours, automation of these tasks are strongly desired. First of all, based on the findings of many studies on strawberry-harvesting robots for soil culture and elevated substrate culture, our institute of the Bio-oriented Technology Research Advancement Institution and Shibuya Seiki developed a commercial model of a…strawberry-harvesting robot, which is chiefly composed a cylindrical manipulator, machine vision, an end-effector, and traveling platform. The results showed an average 54.9% harvesting success rate, 8.6 s cycle time of picking operation, and 102.5 m/h work efficiency in hanging-type growing beds in an experimental greenhouse. Secondly, a prototype automatic packing robot consisting of a supply unit and a packing unit was developed. The supply unit picks up strawberries from a harvesting container, and the packing unit sucks each fruit from calyx side and locates its orientation into a tray. Performance testing showed that automatic packing had a task success rate of 97.3%, with a process time per fruit of 7.3 s. Thirdly, a movable bench system was developed, which makes planting beds rotate in longitudinal and lateral ways. This system brought high density production and labour saving operation at a fixed position, such as crop maintenance and harvesting. By setting up the main body of a strawberry-harvesting robot on working space, unmanned operation technique was developed and tested in an experimental greenhouse. Field experiments of these new automation technologies were conducted and gave a potential of practical use.
Abstract: Until 2008 methyl bromide (MeBr) was used in The Netherlands for fumigation of strawberry runners, intended as mother planting stock, to make them free of contamination by strawberry tarsonemid mites (Phytonemus pallidus). As an alternative of MeBr fumigation a 48 h CATT method was developed and scaled up by Wageningen UR in cooperation with the plant propagating association Plantum. This results in an excellent disinfection and a mortality of 99.8% of the strawberry tarsonemid mite. This method provides a healthy production of highly qualified strawberry runners in the field. From 2009 CATT is up scaled to a commercial level and…widely applied by Dutch nurseries. In 2011 this CATT method was successfully modified to eradicate also root knot nematodes Meloidogyne hapla (>99.7% mortality), which was not effectively controlled by MeBr fumigation. For an effective killing of the root knot nematodes, temperature must be raised to 40°C. In several experiments the optimum for a high mortality of both tarsonemids and nematodes was studied. This leads into an adapted CATT of 20 hours at a temperature of 35°C and 50% CO2 followed by 20 hours at a temperature of 40°C. In 2012 this adapted CATT was successfully upgraded and tested under field conditions.
Abstract: Natural substances such as elicitors of plant defense response, has become a promising option for effective management of plant diseases and are a prerequisite for sustainable and ecological agriculture. Recognition of diverse elicitors, effectors and modulators by specific and nonspecific plant receptors activates signalling cascades eventually leading to gene expression and defense responses. Elicited plants or “primed plants” display either faster, stronger, or both activation of the various cellular defense responses that are induced following attack by either pathogens or insects or in response to abiotic stress. The aim of this work has been to develop new elicitor compounds…from natural vegetal substrates, and predict its effectiveness in the field by using robust molecular techniques and appropriate biomarkers of plant defense. Thus, Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv. Chandler cell suspension cultures, and real-time, quantitative PCR analysis (RTqPCR) were utilized to test the elicitor capability of new natural elicitors. This experimental approach was applied to analyze the pattern of gene expression of specific strawberry genes already known to be good markers of SA- and JA-dependent signalling pathways, which were used as defense induced biomarkers in plants. In addition, determination of total phenols and antioxidant activity, and HPLC-DAD-MS analysis of polyphenolic compounds was performed in these cell suspension samples. Susceptibility to C. acutatum of strawberry plants treated with the new elicitor was performed in greenhouse under controlled conditions. In collaboration with AGROMETODOS, S.A., we have produced new natural compounds that can act as elicitors. We have compared the elicitor activity of a new compound (EH) with the commercial product BROTOMAX® . The new product EH and BROTOMAX® activate plant defense related genes in cell suspension cultures. Also, both products induce polyphenol production in this assay. The new product EH and BROTOMAX® increased the strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv. Camarosa) and olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Picual) resistance against Colletotrichum acutatum and Fusicladium oleaginum plant infections, respectively. We can conclude that new natural bioelicitors can be produced by low-cost procedures based on fermentation of natural substrates derived from plants. The use of suitable, sensitive, appropriate and robust molecular biomarkers also provide an excellent molecular tool to predict the effectiveness in the field of natural compounds with potential eliciting ability, which may be conveniently exploited as ecological bioinducers of plant defense response in strawberry and in many other important crops.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Drosophila suzukii is a highly polyphagous vinegar fly native to Asia, which invaded Switzerland in 2011. The pest was found in all regions of the country, from low altitudes to the timberline. Due to its fast reproduction rate and the infestation of fruits shortly before harvest D. suzukii is difficult to control. OBJECTIVE: Our main objective was to establish an efficient monitoring campaign all over Switzerland. RESULTS: In 2012, a total of 60,000 D. suzukii were captured in 200 monitoring traps, whereupon it represented between 25 and 75% of all vinegar…flies trapped. The range of host plants is very broad, not only affecting crops, but also wild fruits. In 2012 most individuals were captured close to or within cultivated raspberry, blackberry and grapevine as well as in wild shrubs such as elderberry. It is likely that as a result of a consequent application of the recommended sanitation measures, only very few cases of economic damage were reported by the producers in 2012. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring traps can reliably detect the occurrence of the pest in a region. The trap must be very selective to small insects (diameter of 3 mm) to avoid other beneficial insects such as Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera being caught. In case of local presence, setting up a dense net of mass-traps around the crop or between a hedge and the crop should guarantee capture of most vinegar flies before they attack ripe fruits. In close collaboration with national and international partners, Agroscope will try to identify pragmatic and sustainable crop protection measures against D. suzukii .