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The main objective of the
Journal of Berry Research is to improve the knowledge about quality and production of berries to benefit health of the consumers and maintain profitable production using sustainable systems.
The objective will be achieved by focusing on four main areas of research and development:
1. From genetics to variety evaluation
2. Nursery production systems and plant quality control
3. Plant physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as cultural management
4. Health for the consumer: components and factors affecting berries' nutritional value
Specifically, the journal will cover berries (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, cranberry currants, etc.), as well as grapes and small soft fruit in general (e.g., kiwi fruit). It will publish research results covering all areas of plant breeding, including plant genetics, genomics, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, plant physiology, plant pathology and plant development, as well as results dealing with the chemistry and biochemistry of bioactive compounds contained in such fruits and their possible role in human health. Contributions detailing possible pharmacological, medical or therapeutic use or dietary significance will be welcomed in addition to studies regarding biosafety issues of genetically modified plants.
Journal of Berry Research will feature reviews, research articles, brief communications, position papers, letters and patent updates.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Blueberry is among the fastest growing fruit crops in the world, which is beneficial to human health and attracts extensive interests. In contrast to its rapid development and utilization, availability of molecular and genetic resources for blueberries are still scarce. OBJECTIVE: In present report, transcriptomic profiling of four widely cultivated varieties of Rabbiteye and Southern Highbush blueberries were characterized to assist the breeding programs. METHODS: Both de novo and reference-based assembly were conducted to generate the genetic resources that can be used in the further functional and breeding studies. RESULTS: De novo…and reference-based assembly found average 136,350 and 158,123 non-redundant transcripts, respectively. Average 57,668 de novo assembled transcripts can be functionally annotated by homology search with different databases. We further detected 6,268 polymorphic simple sequence repeats, 566,913 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms and 88,662 insertion and deletions among the four varieties with comparison to a recently released reference genome of blueberry. Differentially expressed genes analysis showed that varieties of same species show less differences within species but larger differences between species. CONCLUSIONS: These comprehensive and high-quality genetic resources will contribute to a wide range of genetics and molecular breeding studies in blueberries.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Andean berry contains several classes of phenolic compounds which have showed antioxidant and cytotoxic activity. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the Andean berry aqueous extract and to study their anti-proliferative mechanisms on SW480 and SW620 cell lines (human colon adenocarcinoma). METHODS: Total phenolic and total anthocyanins contents were determined by Folin-Ciocalteau and differential pH methods, respectively. Antioxidant activity was measured by FRAP, ORAC and DPPH methods. Antiproliferative effect was determined by sulforhodamine colorimetric method and apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry using propidium iodide/Annexin-V. Mitochondrial potential was evaluated using DIOC6 and ROS levels were measured by…2,7-Dicholorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). RESULTS: The total phenol and anthocyanin content were 4409.78± 63,05 mg equivalents of gallic acid/100 mL and 106,57± 1.43 mg equivalents of cyanidin-3-glycoside/100 mL, respectively. Andean berry extract showed antioxidant activity by FRAP, ORAC and DPPH methods and antiproliferative effect on SW480 and SW620 cells. It was observed a cell cycle arrest at S and G2/M phases on SW480 and at G0/G1 phase on SW620 cells. Aqueous extract did not induce mitochondrial depolarization or affect intracellular ROS levels. CONCLUSIONS: Andean berry aqueous extract has antioxidant capacity and induces apoptosis involving cell cycle arrest in SW480 and SW620 cells without mitochondrial damage.
Keywords: Vaccinium meridionale, phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, apoptosis, colon cancer
Abstract: In this work, four different drying methods, namely natural drying in sun, natural drying in shade, natural drying in sun using a dipping solution and natural drying in shade using dipping solution were used to drying Ekşikara grapes growing in Karaman, Turkey. While aw values of all grapes were decreased during drying, total soluble solids content increased. The values of pH and total acidity in grape samples significantly increased during the drying period due to the increase in dry matter content. The results showed that all the drying treatments significantly increased the total phenolic content, total antioxidant activity, trans-resveratrol,…organic acid and sugar compounds. Trans-resveratrol amounts were slightly higher in the samples dried in the shade and in the dipping solution treatment and decreased as the drying time increases. An increase in organic acid and sugar contents was observed depending on the drying time. The change of colour was comparatively faster in dried samples with dipping solution. It was found that dipping solution treatment (7 days) reduced the drying time by half when compared to the samples without dipping solution treatment (15 days). This result is important for the grape producers of Karaman/Turkey, where the drying period under sun generally take 15 days.
Keywords: Ekşikara grape, solar drying, sun drying, physical
properties, chemical properties
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Powdery mildew affects grapevine growth and development and reduces grapevine fruit yield and quality. Plant U-box (PUB) E3 ubiquitin ligases play important roles in ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated protein degradation during plant development and in the plant defense response. OBJECTIVE: We cloned the VvPUB17 gene from Vitis vinifera and analyzed that VvPUB17 enhanced the resistance of grapevine to powdery mildew through the SA signal pathway. METHODS: Pathogen inoculation of Arabidopsis thaliana and grapevine plants was carried out by the tableting method. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Sequence analysis and in vitro…ubiquitination experiments show the structure and characteristics of VvPUB17 . Exogenous salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, ethylene and powdery mildew induced the expression of VvPUB17 in Arabidopsis leaves to verify the resistance of VvPUB17 to powdery mildew. RESULTS: Sequence analysis and in vitro ubiquitination experiments show that VvPUB17 contains U-box and Armadillo repeats (ARM repeat) and has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity dependent on the conserved U-box motif. Transgenic plants showed elevated levels of key genes related to the SA defense response pathway and high concentrations of salicylic acid. CONCLUSIONS: VvPUB17 functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that enhances the resistance of grapes to powdery mildew through the SA signal pathway.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The Mexican serviceberry, Malacomeles denticulata , have been used as a successful oral therapy by Mexican communities without enough scientific support. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the M. denticulata extracts with selective antibacterial properties over dental biofilm bacteria. METHODS: Fruit, Leaf, and Stem of M. denticulata extracts were evaluated with micro-broth dilution method using ATCC bacteria. OD600 values had compared against each positive control (T-student -test). Anaerobically viability had confirmed by Colony-Forming-Units. Thin-Layer-Chromatography was used to identify the number of compounds and phytochemicals to identify secondary metabolites of the selected extracts. RESULTS: Streptococcus…mutans showed Minimum-Bactericidal-Concentrations_(MBC) at 30 mg/mL to Fruit, Leaf, and Stem extracts. Periodontal-pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans serotype b_(MBC = 30 mg/mL_NS); Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. nucleatum _(MBC = 30 mg/mL_p <0.05); Parvimonas micra _(MBC = 15 mg/mL_NS); Porphyromonas gingivalis_ (MBC = 30 mg/mL_NS); and Prevotella intermedia_ (MBC = 3.75 mg/mL_NS) presented higher sensitivity to Leaf-Methanol, than the primary colonizers. Phytochemicals showed positive results to anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, saponins steroids/triterpenoids, steroids/triterpenes, and tannins/phenols. CONCLUSION: We suggest the natural extracts of fruit and leaf of the Mexican serviceberry for the preventive use over the oral cariogenic or periodontal biofilm species, by their selective antibacterial properties against pathogenic species evaluated in-vitro , and due to the presence of antibacterial secondary metabolites identified as flavonoids and saponins of M. denticulata leaf extracts.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Strawberry fruits are perishable with a short post-harvest life. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) is the key enzyme for lignin biosynthesis strengthening plant cell wall. A systematic characterization of strawberry CAD family is absent and their involvement in fruit firmness is largely elusive. OBJECTIVE: Current work aims for a genome-wide identificationof CAD family and its expression correlation with fruit firmness in strawberry varieties. METHODS: A genome-scale identification and molecular characterization for CADs were performed in the commercial strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa ) and woodland strawberry (F. vesca ). qPCR analysis of CAD homoeologs in three…cultivars varying with fruit firmness revealed candidate CAD members positively correlated with lignin content and fruit firmness. RESULTS: A total of 14 and 24 CAD loci were identified in the genomes of F .vesca var. Hawaii4 and F. ×ananassa cv. Camarosa, respectively.Phylogenetic analysis supported a division of this family into three classes. Class I FvCAD each has four homoeologs in commercial strawberry, while those of Class II and Class III have only one or two homoeologs. Except for FvCAD2 and -6, there exits at least one pair of CADs sharing ∼97% or above amino acid identity between F. vesca and F. ×ananassa .The flesh firmness and lignin content varied greatly among strawberry germplasm. Distinct dynamic changes in fruit lignin content were observed before the large green stage, but fruit firmness displayed a similar decrease profile during fruit development in three varieties. Of the eight genes detected in F. ×ananassa , FvCAD3 and -12 did not display a F. vesca -biased expression pattern during fruit development.FvCAD4 of Class I was expressed at levels positively correlated with variation in fruit lignin content at white stage.Transcript abundance of five Class IIgenes including FvCAD3 , -8 , -10 , -11 , and -12 was positively correlated with lignin content and fruit firmness, with FvCAD10 and -11 (FaCAD in previous publication) reaching an extremely significant correlation with the genetic variation in fruit firmness across three varieties. CONCLUSION: Strawberry Class II CADs were significantly correlated with the genetic variation in fruit firmness, which might expand the potential choices for improving strawberry shelf life.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Kaolin particle-film application is a well-known strategy to avoid fruit damage. However, its putative role in balancing berry ripening under a changing climate remains poorly explored. OBJECTIVE: We assessed kaolin treatment effect on several ripening berry components, hormonal balance and oenological parameters of the field-grown Touriga-Franca (TF) and Touriga–Nacional (TN) grapevine varieties at veraison (EL35) and ripening (EL38) during two growing seasons (2017 and 2018). RESULTS: Under the adverse summer conditions (two heatwave events) of 2017, kaolin application increased 211.2 %and 51.4 %the salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) levels in TF berries…at EL38, while no significant differences were observed in TN. Conversely, TF, and TN kaolin treated berries showed lower SA and ABA accumulation in 2018, respectively. Tartaric acid content increased about 17.2 %, and 24.2 %in TF and TN treated berries at stage EL35 in the 2017 growing season. Though kaolin treatment had no consistent effect on anthocyanins accumulation, flavonoids, ortho -diphenols and tannins increased in kaolin treated grapevines in 2017. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the key role of climate in triggering ripening related processes and fruit quality potential. Nevertheless, kaolin treated grapevines displayed an improved response to oxidative stress signals by increasing secondary metabolites accumulation in warm vintages. Kaolin application promoted different varietal responses, with a possible ripening delaying effect in TF, reinforcing its efficiency in alleviating severe summer stress impacts.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Genus Fragaria (family - Rosaceae), popular edible berry fruits with delicious flavor and considerable health benefits has many wild relatives in the Himalayan region. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to characterize variability in morphology, physicochemical properties, phytochemicals, and antioxidant activity in wild Himalayan Strawberry, Fragaria nubicola along the ripening stages and among the genotypes. METHOD: Morphological and physicochemical properties, thiamine, carotenes, total phenolic content, phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, flavonols, tannins, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays) were determined in four ripening stages of berry fruits. RESULTS:…Morphological attributes (diameter, length, volume, and fresh weight of berries) have shown considerable variations among the genotypes and increased significantly (p < 0.05) with the ripening stages. The physicochemical properties such as juice content, pH and moisture content also increased with the ripening, however, the pomace content decreased with the ripening. Anthocyanin content increased significantly (p < 0.05) with ripening and reached at maximum level after full ripening. A successive decrease in free and bounded total phenolic, flavonoid, and flavonol contents was observed with the ripening except in total tannin content. However, a reverse trend of these phenolics was observed in juice along with the ripening. The antioxidant activity measured by three in vitro assays increased with the ripening. Phenolics were extracted higher in the acidified methanolic solvent (extracted free and bounded phenolics) as compared to methanolic solvent (extracted free phenolics). Phenolic compounds quantified by RP-HPLC analysis were extracted higher in acidified methanol as compared to methanol, except chlorogenic acid content. CONCLUSION: The results showed quantitative changes in free and bounded phenolics and morphological and functional traits along with the ripening. Also, this important genetic resource exhibited potential utility in the breeding of strawberry improvement programs and as an alternative resource of rich phytonutrients and antioxidants as a functional food.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Blackcurrants are an important berry crop whose further development depends mainly on the diversity of available plant material and its successful inclusion in the breeding. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate selected SSR markers’ applicability for the analysis of germplasm consisting of genotypes developed through complicated multistage crosses among different Ribes species and estimate the genetic structure and level of genetic diversity of the blackcurrant collection. METHODS: The set of 110 blackcurrant accessions from the Latvian genetic resources collection was genotyped using 18 previously described SSR markers. RESULTS: The marker set provided…all genotypes with unique fingerprints and proved the need for reference genotypes in international studies for data validation. The accessions clustered according to pedigree and did not group by country of origin or breeding programme. CONCLUSIONS: The tested SSR markers uncovered relationships between blackcurrant accessions of complicated interspecific composition and revealed an extensive mutual exchange of germplasm among breeding programmes, thus pointing to the need for new donors of valuable characteristics. The results also highlighted the necessity to identify each species’ proportion in the hybrid material to assess the impact of species-linked gene expression.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The sweetness of highbush blueberries is a sensory quality standard for consumers. Changes in metabolites and expression of associated genes induce variation in the sensory quality of blueberries. OBJECTIVE: This work investigated the ripening mechanism of blueberries by measuring changes in organic acids and sugar content as well as the gene expression levels associated with sugar accumulation, such as β amylase, invertase, sucrose phosphate synthase, and tonoplast monosaccharide transporter genes, before and after harvesting. METHODS: We used three different blueberry cultivars (Duke, Sierra, and Elizabeth) that we harvested at two ripening stages in a…randomized complete block design and then kept at room temperature or 4°C for 7 days. The organic acids and sugar content were measured via HPLC, and gene expression levels were analyzed by qPCR. RESULTS: Cultivars, ripening stage, and storage conditions affected the synthesis of sugars and degradation of organic acids to determine the sweetness in blueberries and the expression of tagged genes and analyses of compounds involved in the metabolic mechanism. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide insights into the mechanism underlying the ripening and the postharvest quality. This study may support the selection of suitable blueberry cultivars that meet customer demand.