Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation - Volume Pre-press, issue Pre-press
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Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation is a journal whose main focus is to present relevant information about the interdisciplinary approach to musculoskeletal rehabilitation for clinicians who treat patients with back and musculoskeletal pain complaints. It will provide readers with both 1) a general fund of knowledge on the assessment and management of specific problems and 2) new information considered to be state-of-the-art in the field. The intended audience is multidisciplinary as well as multi-specialty.
In each issue clinicians can find information which they can use in their patient setting the very next day. Manuscripts are provided from a range of health care providers including those in physical medicine, orthopedic surgery, rheumatology, neurosurgery, physical therapy, radiology, osteopathy, chiropractic and nursing on topics ranging from chronic pain to sports medicine. Diagnostic decision trees and treatment algorithms are encouraged in each manuscript. Controversial topics are discussed in commentaries and rebuttals. Associated areas such as medical-legal, worker's compensation and practice guidelines are included.
The journal publishes original research papers, review articles, programme descriptions and cast studies. Letters to the editors, commentaries, and editorials are also welcomed. Manuscripts are peer reviewed. Constructive critiques are given to each author. Suggestions for thematic issues and proposed manuscripts are welcomed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Fluoroscopy-guided caudal epidural steroid injection (EDSI) is an option for conservative treatment of low back pain and sciatica; however, repeated exposure to radiation is a concern. With the blind technique, the needle misplacement rate is 30%; hence, ultrasound-guided caudal EDSI is a favored option. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of ultrasound-guided EDSI for low back pain and sciatica. METHODS: One hundred and ten patients with low back pain and sciatica who were unresponsive to conservative treatment, were prospectively recruited. Ultrasound-guided caudal EDSI was administered at 0, 3, and 6 weeks. Visual Analog…Scale (VAS) score was recorded at 0, 2, 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Patients completed the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) at pre-injection and 24 weeks post-injection. RESULTS: VAS was significantly reduced at 2, 4, 12, and 24 weeks (p < 0.01). At 2, 4, 12, and 24 weeks after injection, 20%, 26%, 74%, and 83% of patients displayed > 50% VAS reduction, respectively. The mean pre-injection RMDQ score was 15 and that post-injection at 24 weeks was 7 (p < 0.01). The majority of patients had > 50% reduction in the RMDQ score. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound-guided EDSI was safe and efficacious for low back pain and sciatica treatment at the intermediate follow-up.
Keywords: Low back pain, sciatica, epidural injection, ultrasound
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Physical therapy and exercise programs are frequently used in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, it is not known at what stage of knee OA it is more effective. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work was to determine the relationship between the effectiveness of the physical therapy and exercise programs and the radiological findings presence/grade of knee OA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overall, 92 patients (65F, 27M) with knee OA were enrolled in the retrospective study. Standard knee radiographs were graded according to Kellgren-Lawrence. Pain and functional status were evaluated using a…visual analog scale (VAS) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) at baseline, at the end of the physical therapy program (first month), and at third-month control visits. The demographic characteristics and VAS/WOMAC scores of the subjects were obtained from patient files. RESULTS: We analyzed 131 knees of 92 patients with knee OA (65F, 27M, mean age 53.02 ± 11.13 years). The mean total VAS and WOMAC scores on the first and third months were significantly lower than the initial values (all p < 0.001). The mean VAS scores on the first and third months were significantly lower than the initial values in the group without radiological damage, but WOMAC scores were similar between the evaluations (p = 0.009, p 50 = 0.003, respectively). The mean VAS and WOMAC scores on the first and third months were significantly lower than the initial values in the grade 1 according to the Kellgren-Lawrence radiological grades (all p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of our study, physical therapy and exercise was effective on pain in all patients with knee OA, but only effective on knee functional capacity in the group with radiological findings, and especially more effective in patients with Kellgren-Lawrence grade 1.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Quadratus lumborum (QL) discrete region extensions might change depending on whether leg length discrepancy (LLD) individually has any extra erector spinae action in the lumbar spine, which can result in serious injury to the lower extremities and lumbar vertebrae. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the effect of QL muscle activity on LLD by using electromyography (EMG) signals. METHODS: The study employed a randomized controlled design. A total of 100 right-handed volunteers were included in this study. All participants were assessed manually by tape measurement for LLD. EMG signals were recorded during…the resting and maximal isometric contraction positions to determine QL muscle activity. The power spectral density (PSD) methods were applied to compute EMG signals. RESULTS: In maximal isometric contraction position, comparing the short right LLD (Right side = 0.00064 ± 0.00001, Left side = 0.00033 ± 0.0006) and short left LLD (Right side = 0.00001 ± 0.00008, Left side = 0.00017 ± 0.0001), it was found that the short right LLD group had significantly increased PSD of EMG values. In resting position, the short right LLD (Right side = 0.0002 ± 0.0073, Left side = 0.00016 ± 0.0065) had significantly increased PSD of EMG compared to the short left LLD (Right side = 0.00004 ± 0.0003, Left side = 0.0001 ± 0.0008) values of the QL muscle activity. The results of both groups were also statistically significant (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that it is possible to determine effective experimental interventions for functional LLD using EMG signal analysis of QL muscle activity on an asymptomatic normal population.
Keywords: Pelvic asymmetry, leg length discrepancy, Discrete Fourier Transform, quadratus lumborum, electromyography signal
Abstract: BACKGROUND: New motor adaptation to pain theory suggests that patients with low back pain (LBP) use the lumbopelvic stiffening strategy by redistribution of within and between muscle activities to protect painful structure. This could result in an altered postural control of the lumbopelvic region during active prone hip rotation (PHR). OBJECTIVE: To investigate coordination and timing of lumbopelvic and hip movements, and smoothness of the lumbopelvic control during PHR between participants with and without LBP. METHODS: Eight participants with LBP and eight participants without LBP were recruited. The electromagnetic tracking system was used…to record kinematic data during PHR. Cross-correlation between hip rotation and lumbopelvic movement in the transverse plane was calculated. Correlation at zero time-lag, time-lag, correlation at time-lag, and maximal lumbopelvic motion were derived. Frequency of movement disruption was identified. An independent t -test was used in conjunction with the effect size and 95% minimal detectable difference (MDD 95 ) to determine the difference in kinematic parameters. RESULTS: Participants with LBP demonstrated a significant delay (exceeding MDD 95 ) in lumbopelvic motion while nonsignificant frequency of disrupted motion on the painful side PHR demonstrated a trend with a large effect size that exceeded MDD 95 . There were trends with moderate to large effect sizes and differences exceeding MDD 95 in delay of lumbopelvic motion with greater movement disruption on the nonpainful side in participants with LBP. CONCLUSION: Participants with LBP used a lumbopelvic stiffening strategy for postural control to protect painful structures; however, the stiffening might complicate efforts to smoothly control lumbopelvic movement.
Keywords: Prone hip rotation, low back pain, motion analysis, motor adaptation
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in neck muscles seem to be related to the main symptoms of patients with chronic neck pain. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate the effects of dry needling (DN) on pain, disability, kinesiophobia, pain catastrophizing and psychological distress in patients with chronic neck pain. METHODS: A double blind randomized controlled pilot trial was designed. Twenty-one patients with chronic neck pain were randomly allocated to the DN group (n = 7), Sham-DN group (n = 7) or Control group…(n = 7). All groups received a Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Therapeutic Ultrasound (TENS/US) protocol with patient education. The DN and Sham-DN groups received two sessions of DN and sham DN, respectively. The primary outcome was pain intensity. Secondary outcomes were disability, kinesiophobia, pain catastrophizing, psychological distress, self-reported improvement and success of blinding. RESULTS: The DN group showed a greater decrease in pain intensity, disability and pain catastrophizing compared to the Sham-DN group (p < 0.05) and the Control group (p < 0.05). The DN group showed the highest self-reported improvement. CONCLUSION: Adding two sessions of DN in active MTrPs in upper trapezius, levator scapulae and sternocleidomastoid muscles to a TENS/US protocol with patient education decreased pain intensity, disability and pain catastrophizing in patients with chronic neck pain.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Slipping rib syndrome (SRS) consists of false or floating rib hypermobility, which can force the ribs to come into contact with each other. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine each case by dynamic ultrasound to determine their ultrasound characteristics and analyze the clinical features of patients with SRS in order to better manage and follow them up. METHODS: Retrospectively, we collected 14 case series presenting to SRS between June 2016 and September 2018. The diagnosis was clinical and confirmed by dynamic ultrasound maneuvers. RESULTS: The mean age was 35.00 ±…10.66 years and 64.29% was male. The pain mechanism was caused by repetitive movements or a traumatic event. Dynamic ultrasound was considered a very useful tool for the diagnosis. Different conservative treatments were applied in most cases. Eco-guided infiltration was also an option. CONCLUSIONS: SRS should initially be based on a clinic suspicion in order to achieve a correct diagnosis and management. It is an underdiagnosed syndrome, so these case series contribute to our knowledge regarding this syndrome.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Due to the extended use of smartphones, people spend a lot of time on these devices while lying down. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to compare the differences in neck muscle activity of participants while they watched videos on a smartphone in four different lying positions (supine (SUP), prone on elbows (PE), side lying (SIDE), and 45 ∘ head turn while side lying (45-SIDE)). METHODS: Twenty-three healthy volunteers (22.4 ± 1.7 years) were enrolled in this study. We assessed the activities of…their right and left sternocleidomastoid (SCM), anterior scalene, cervical erector spinae (CES), and upper trapezius (UT) muscles while they watched videos on a smartphone in four different lying positions. RESULTS: The right and left SCM and CES had significantly different muscle activities depending on the lying positions. The SCM activity had a significantly greater asymmetry in the 45-SIDE position, while the CES activity had a significantly greater asymmetry in the SIDE and 45-SIDE positions. Moreover, the UT activity had a significantly greater asymmetry in the SUP, PE, and SIDE positions. CONCLUSIONS: Neck muscle activity and asymmetry were the lowest in the SUP position relative to the other positions. Therefore, lying down in the SUP position may minimize neck muscle activation while using a smartphone.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Recent clinical studies have revealed the advantages of using suspension devices. Although the supine, lateral, and forward leaning bridge exercises are low-intensity exercises with suspension devices, there is a lack of studies directly comparing exercise progression by measuring muscular activity and subjective difficulty. OBJECTIVE: To identify how the variations in the bridge exercise affects trunk muscle activity, the present study investigated changes in neuromuscular activation during low-intensity bridge exercises. We furthermore explored whether the height of the suspension point affects muscle activation and subjective difficulty. METHODS: Nineteen asymptomatic male participants were included.…Three bridge exercise positions, supine bridge (SB), lateral bridge (LB), forward leaning (FL), and two exercise angles (15 and 30 degrees) were administered, thereby comparing six bridge exercise conditions with suspension devices. Surface electromyography and subjective difficulty data were collected. RESULTS: The rectus abdominis activity was significantly higher with the LB and FL exercises compared with the SB exercise (p < 0.05). The erector spinae muscle activity was significantly higher with the SB and LB exercises, compared with the FL exercise (p < 0.05). The LB exercise significantly increased the internal oblique muscle activity, compared with other exercise variations (p < 0.05). The inclination angle of the exercise only affected the internal oblique muscle and subjective difficulty, which were significantly higher at 30 degrees compared with 15 degrees (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Relatively higher inclination angle was not effective in overall activation of the trunk muscles; however, different bridge-type exercises could selectively activate the trunk muscles. The LB and SB exercises could be good options for stimulating the internal oblique abdominis, and the erector spinae muscle, while the FL exercise could minimize the erector spinae activity and activate the abdominal muscles.
Keywords: Electromyography, exercise, sling, ratio
Abstract: BACKGROUND: A validated method to assess sitting and standing posture in a clinical setting is needed to guide diagnosis, treatment and evaluation of these postures. At present, no systematic overview of assessment methods, their clinimetric properties, and usability is available. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to provide such an overview and to interpret the results for clinical practice. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed according to international guidelines. Two independent reviewers assessed risk of bias, clinimetric values of the assessment methods, and their usability. Quality of evidence and strength of…recommendations were determined according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation working group (GRADE). RESULTS: Out of 27,680 records, 41 eligible studies were included. Thirty-two assessment instruments were identified, clustered into five categories. The methodological quality of 27 (66%) of the articles was moderate to good. Reliability was most frequently studied. Little information was found about validity and none about responsiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Based on a moderate level of evidence, a tentative recommendation can be made to use a direct visual observation method with global posture recorded by a trained observer applying a rating scale.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Lumbar radiculopathy is characterized by a significant amount of backache causing loss of workforce and is a significant health problem frequently seen in the general population. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of conventional physiotherapy (CT) and proprioception exercises (PE) on ankle proprioception and lumbar pain between patients with lumbar radiculopathy and a healthy control group. METHODS: In this randomized clinical trial, 89 patients referred to the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation outpatient clinic were selected through convenience sampling. They were randomly assigned to three groups: CT (n =…27), PE (n = 31), CT&PE (n = 31). Thirty healthy volunteers were included in the study as the control group. Proprioception measurements were made with an isokinetic dynamometer at 10 ∘ dorsiflexion (DF), 11 ∘ , and 25 ∘ plantarflexion (PF) angles. Lumbar pain was assessed by using the Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS). The data were analyzed by IBM SPSS Statistics version 22.0 via the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of ankle proprioception and NPRS measurements in post-treatment evaluations (p < 0.05). Statistically significant differences were found between CT and PE groups and CT&PE and control groups. There was no statistically significant difference in comparing CT and PE groups and CT&PE and control groups within themselves (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The combined use of CT and PE is an effective method that can be used in the clinic to reduce angular differences in ankle proprioception which is one of the primary factors of balance and coordination and lumbar pain.