Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation - Volume Pre-press, issue Pre-press
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Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation is a journal whose main focus is to present relevant information about the interdisciplinary approach to musculoskeletal rehabilitation for clinicians who treat patients with back and musculoskeletal pain complaints. It will provide readers with both 1) a general fund of knowledge on the assessment and management of specific problems and 2) new information considered to be state-of-the-art in the field. The intended audience is multidisciplinary as well as multi-specialty.
In each issue clinicians can find information which they can use in their patient setting the very next day. Manuscripts are provided from a range of health care providers including those in physical medicine, orthopedic surgery, rheumatology, neurosurgery, physical therapy, radiology, osteopathy, chiropractic and nursing on topics ranging from chronic pain to sports medicine. Diagnostic decision trees and treatment algorithms are encouraged in each manuscript. Controversial topics are discussed in commentaries and rebuttals. Associated areas such as medical-legal, worker's compensation and practice guidelines are included.
The journal publishes original research papers, review articles, programme descriptions and cast studies. Letters to the editors, commentaries, and editorials are also welcomed. Manuscripts are peer reviewed. Constructive critiques are given to each author. Suggestions for thematic issues and proposed manuscripts are welcomed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Psychological factors influence the development and persistence of chronic low back pain (CLBP) and may impair the psychosocial rehabilitation success. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of a combined pain competence and depression prevention training compared to the pain competence training alone and as well as the patients’ stages of pain on the long-term psychosocial rehabilitation success. METHODS: In this controlled multicentre study with cluster-block randomization, patients with CLBP in different stages of pain (I–III) received either pain competence training (control group, CG; n = 255) or combined…pain competence and depression prevention training (intervention group, IG; n = 271; per protocol). Depressive symptoms (primary outcome), anxiety, somatization, health status, and average pain intensity (secondary outcomes) were assessed up to 12 months of follow-up. Standardised questionnaires were used to record the outcomes, which were filled out by the patients themselves. Analyses after multiple imputation (N = 1225) were conducted to validate multi- and univariate analyses of variance. RESULTS: Patients in stage of pain I and II showed significant improvements in depressive symptoms, anxiety, mental health, and average pain intensity at the 12-month follow-up, irrespective from treatment condition. CONCLUSIONS: Multidisciplinary rehabilitation seems to be appropriate for patients with CLBP in stage of pain I and II. However, patients in stage of pain III need more psychological treatments to manage their mental comorbidities.
Keywords: Low back pain, pain chronification, mental disorders, multidisciplinary rehabilitation, Mainz Pain Staging System
Abstract: BACKGROUND: While a number of preclinical studies have examined the effectiveness of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) as a potential treatment for knee osteoarthritis (OA), there have been few clinical studies which have indirectly confirmed cartilage regeneration by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate whether LIPUS effectively increased knee cartilage thickness and improved pain and function in knee OA patients. METHODS: This study was a prospective, single-group, home-based self-therapy trial. We included patients (n = 20) with OA pain. Each patient…used an ultrasonic stimulation device (BODITREK JOINT™ ) for more than 20 sessions. Outcomes were assessed by MRI, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and the 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36) for assessing quality of life. RESULTS: Nineteen subjects completed this study. There was no significant increase in the cartilage thickness measured by MRI after LIPUS treatment. LIPUS therapy significantly decreased VAS score and WOMAC score, and significantly increased SF-36 score. The subgroup analysis in patients with knee OA showed that LIPUS treatment showed better for older patients with lower Kellgren-Lawrence grades. CONCLUSION: Pain, function, and quality of life improved after LIPUS, but there was no significant increase in cartilage thickness through MRI.
Keywords: Ultrasonic therapy, osteoarthritis, arthralgia, cartilage, physical functional performance, quality of life
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Problems with motor functions, balance and gait ability commonly occur in stroke patients and cause asymmetric posture imbalance and gait patterns. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of gait training (GT) combined with portable functional electrical stimulation (FES) on motor functions, balance and gait ability of stroke patients. METHODS: A single blind, randomized control trial was conducted with 34 post stroke patients who were randomly allocated to two groups: 1) FES + GT group (n = 17) and the placebo FES +…GT (PLBO + GT) group (n = 17). All interventions were given for 30 minutes, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) was used to measure motor function of lower extremity. Performance oriented mobility assessment (POMA) was used to balance and gait ability. OptoGait was used to analyze gait ability. RESULTS: Both groups showed significant improvements in motor function, balance and gait ability. The FES + GT group showed significantly greater improvement in motor function, balance and gait abilities after four weeks compared to the PLBO + GT group. CONCLUSION: It was found that the gait training applied with FES is effective in improving the motor function, balance and gait abilities of stroke patients.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Because shoulder pain can have an unfavorable prognosis, it is important to have a better understanding of factors that may influence recovery. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between recovery from shoulder pain and the presence of depression, anxiety, and pain catastrophizing. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study with a six months follow-up, we included patients visiting an orthopaedic department with shoulder pain. Primary outcome was recovery from shoulder pain measured with the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index at three and six months. Information about depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale),…pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and demographic and clinical factors were collected at baseline. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the effects of depression, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, and underlying shoulder disorders on recovery. RESULTS: We included 190 patients. There were no statistically significant associations between the presence of depression, anxiety, and pain catastrophizing, and three- and six-month recovery. Also between the underlying shoulder disorders and recovery at three and six months, there were no statistically significant associations. CONCLUSIONS : We could not prove that depression, anxiety, and pain catastrophizing, as well as underlying shoulder disorders, were associated with recovery of shoulder pain at six months.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Whiplash injury-related neck pain frequently hinders daily life activities, resulting in poor quality of life. Recovery time is prolonged in many patients. Long-term outcomes of refractory whiplash injury-related neck pain remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the long-term prognosis of chronic whiplash injury-related neck pain. METHODS: We evaluated the prognosis of 38 patients with whiplash injury-induced neck pain via phone interviews. We investigated the data on current presence and degree of neck pain, current pain medication, physical modality or injection procedures, and difficulty performing daily life activities or occupational…duties. RESULTS: At least 5 years after the whiplash injury, 34 patients (89.5%) experienced whiplash injury-related neck pain. The average numeric rating scale (NRS) score on the initial visit to our spine center was 5.3 ± 1.7 and that at the follow-up interview was 4.3 ± 2.6. Twenty-six (68.4%) patients had pain scores ⩾ 3 on the NRS. Additionally, 26 (68.4%) patients were receiving at least one of the following pain-management treatments: oral pain medications, physical modality, and injection procedures. Twenty-eight (73.7%) patients encountered difficulty performing daily life activities and occupational duties. CONCLUSIONS: The long-term prognosis of patients with whiplash injury-related neck pain was found to be poor.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Low back pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal diseases in the modern society, causing a huge economic burden, and has become an important public health problem. Years lived with disability caused by low back pain increased rapidly as a result of population growth and ageing worldwide, with the biggest increase seen in low-income and middle-income countries. In this context, the prevention and treatment of low back pain in the elderly warrant attention and research. OBJECTIVE: The aim is to determine the correlation between vital capacity (VC) and vertebral body translation during lumbar flexion…and extension in adults aged 60 to 69 years. METHODS: A total of 192 adults aged 60 to 69 years were selected by cluster sampling in Lishui City, Zhejiang Province, China. The VC of the study population was tested and the ratio of VC to body mass (BM) was calculated. The lumbar hyperextension and hyperflexion of the study population were radiographed using a Hitachi 500 mAs X-ray machine made in Japan to verify vertebral body translations in each segment. RESULTS: The differences of test values of VC (P = 0.004), VC/BM ratio (P = 0.012) and vertebral body translation in the L5-S1 segment during flexion and extension (P < 0.001) of the populations aged 60 to 64 and 65 to 69 years were all statistically significant. The vertebral body translation in the L5-S1 segment during lumbar flexion and extension in the population aged 60 to 69 years was negatively correlated with the VC (rs = - 0.207 and P = 0.004) and VC/BM ratio (rs = - 0.248 and P = 0.001), showing statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The vertebral body translation of during lumbar flexion and extension correlates with the VC in the population aged 60 to 69 years. Recognition of this correlation may help to guide further lumbar stabilization exercises.
Keywords: Vital capacity, ratio of vital capacity to body mass, vertebral body translation
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Shoulder external rotation in the throwing motion involves movement of the scapulothoracic and glenohumeral joints, thoracic spine, and the thorax. Restriction of thoracic expansion may decrease scapulothoracic joint motion and compensate by excessive glenohumeral joint motion. However, it is unclear how restricting the expansion of the thorax alters shoulder motion. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate changes in scapulothoracic and glenohumeral joint movements caused by restricted thoracic expansion. METHODS: Kinematic data were obtained using an electromagnetic tracking device (Liberty; Polhemus), from 18 male participants, during shoulder external rotation in the sitting position with and without…restriction of thoracic expansion. The displacements from the start position to the maximum external rotation position were compared, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient was calculated. RESULTS: A significant difference was observed in the scapulothoracic posterior tilt angle (P < 0.01) and glenohumeral external rotation angle (P < 0.01). A significant positive correlation existed between scapulothoracic posterior tilt and glenohumeral external rotation (P < 0.05) with and without restriction. CONCLUSIONS: Restriction of thoracic expansion decreased scapulothoracic motion and increased glenohumeral motion. Thus, a decrease in thoracic expansion may change scapulothoracic and glenohumeral movements, which may be a risk factor for throwing injuries.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: To date, only one study assessed the spinal mobility and muscle strength of patients who were treated either with fusion or brace treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the range of motion (ROM) and strength of the cervical and thoracic/lumbar spine in patients who underwent spinal fusion for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in comparison to healthy individuals. METHODS: Patients (n = 28) who were treated surgically for AIS were included in the study. An age and gender matched control…group (n = 22) was included that consisted of healthy individuals. DAVID ® Lumbar/Thoracic Extension, Lumbar/Thoracic Rotation, and Cervical Extension/Lateral Flexion devices were used to measure cervical and lumbar/thoracic ROM as well as muscle strength. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed between groups in all ROM measurements except thoracic/lumbar sagittal flexion ROM measurement (p = 0.198). There were significant differences between groups in terms of muscle strength, except thoracic lumbar left rotation strength (p = 0.081). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the current study demonstrated that cervical and thoracic/lumbar range of motion, as well as muscle strength, were significantly decreased in surgically treated adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients compared to healthy counterparts. However, trunk (thoracic/lumbar) flexion range of motion and trunk left rotation muscle strength were not significantly different.
Keywords: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, posterior instrumentation, range of motion, muscle strength, surgery
Abstract: BACKROUND: Optimal postoperative management is controversial after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR). OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate outcomes of patients with and without postoperative sling immobilization after undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. METHOD: 369 arthroscopic full thickness superior rotator cuff tears (RCT) with a minimum follow-up of 6 months were included in this study. Propensity score matching was performed for age, sex, BMI, and tear size. Pain (VAS score), shoulder range of motion (ROM), functional outcome (ASES, Constant-Murley [CM] and Oxford shoulder score [OSS]), and health related quality of…life (SF-36) scores were compared between patients with and without sling immobilization. RESULTS: According to the propensity match score, 92 patients (50 sling immobilization and 42 no sling immobilization) were matched to be almost identical in age (62.5 ± 8.0 vs. 61.8 ± 5.9), sex (female 78% vs. 76.2%), BMI (28.1 ± 2.8 vs. 27.8 ± 2.6), and tear size (2.7 ± 1.1 vs. 2.9 ± 0.8). The postoperative physical functioning domain of SF-36 scores was found to be significantly higher in the no sling group (p = 0.034). CONCLUSION: Early mobilization after arthroscopic small and medium sized full thickness superior rotator cuff repair is associated with improved ROM and quality of life scores.
Keywords: Sling, rotator cuff, arthroscopic, function, quality of life
Abstract: bACKGROUND: 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) deficiency is associated with cardiovascular disease and poor physical performance. OBJECTIVE: To assign the effect of 25OHD level on cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: One-hundred-thirty-five patients with CAD who underwent a CR programme were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into two-group according to 25OHD level (Group 1: < 20 ng/dl; Group 2: ⩾ 20 ng/dl). All patients received CR for 30 sessions. Each participant performed 40 minutes of aerobic exercise with a cycloergometer followed by muscle strengthening…exercises. The patients were evaluated before and after CR by a pulmonary function test (PFT) and a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). RESULTS: There were 77 (57%) patients in Group 1 and 58 patients (43%) in Group 2. Demographic characteristics between the groups were similar. Pre- and post-rehabilitation CPET parameters were lower in Group 1 (p < 0.05). Both groups had significant improvement in CPET (p < 0.05). Post-rehabilitation PFT parameters (FEV 1 , FVC) were higher in Group 2 (p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between the 25OHD-level and the CPET-PFT parameters (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: 25OHD deficiency in patients with CAD reduces the response to CR. It also affects respiratory function according to the FEV 1 , FVC parameters. In patients scheduled for CR, 25OHD-levels should be evaluated, and any deficiency corrected.
Keywords: Cardiac rehabilitation, vitamin D deficiency, cardiopulmonary exercise test, respiratory function test