Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation - Volume 30, issue 2
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Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation is a journal whose main focus is to present relevant information about the interdisciplinary approach to musculoskeletal rehabilitation for clinicians who treat patients with back and musculoskeletal pain complaints. It will provide readers with both 1) a general fund of knowledge on the assessment and management of specific problems and 2) new information considered to be state-of-the-art in the field. The intended audience is multidisciplinary as well as multi-specialty.
In each issue clinicians can find information which they can use in their patient setting the very next day. Manuscripts are provided from a range of health care providers including those in physical medicine, orthopedic surgery, rheumatology, neurosurgery, physical therapy, radiology, osteopathy, chiropractic and nursing on topics ranging from chronic pain to sports medicine. Diagnostic decision trees and treatment algorithms are encouraged in each manuscript. Controversial topics are discussed in commentaries and rebuttals. Associated areas such as medical-legal, worker's compensation and practice guidelines are included.
The journal publishes original research papers, review articles, programme descriptions and cast studies. Letters to the editors, commentaries, and editorials are also welcomed. Manuscripts are peer reviewed. Constructive critiques are given to each author. Suggestions for thematic issues and proposed manuscripts are welcomed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Symptomatic lumbar intervertebral disc herniation (LDH) is rare in children and adolescents. To date, the treatments available for child and adolescent LDH, and the effect of each treatment, have not been fully reviewed. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this retrospective study is to report the etiology, familial history, presenting symptoms, level of herniation, duration of symptoms, radiological findings, as well as treatment methods and outcome. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of all patients with inclusion criteria of being younger than 20 years. (10-19 years); we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to confirm…lumbar disc herniations between 2013 and 2016. All patients were followed up for a minimum of 12 months and discharged if they remained almost asymptomatic for 6 months. All patients were treated conservatively and 6 patients they have progressive neurological deficit and persistent back pain, were treated with surgical procedures. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), as well as the Oswestry Disability Scale (ODS) and the modified Ashworth Scale (AS) were used to analyze physical examination findings both before and after treatment. To detect lumbar disc degeneration, we used the modified Pfirrmann grading system with MRI. All statistical analyses were performed with commercially available SPSS 15.0 software, while p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 70 cases with lumbar disc herniation have been treated. The mean age was 17.14 ± 2.15 years (range 9-19 years). The male to female ratio was 35:35. The mean duration of symptoms was 7.21 ± 1.69 months. The follow-up duration was 17.31 ± 4.17 months. The most common level was L4-5 in 38 (54%) patients and the second was L5-S1 in 24 (34%) patients. Subligamentous protruded discs were found in 42 (60%), extruded in 6 (9%), and disc bulge with intact annulus in 22 (31%) cases. VAS before treatment was 6.05 ± 0.83, while at 6 months after treatment it was 3.1 ± 0.6. However, at the first-year examination, VAS was 2.17 ± 0.76. The ODS was indexed before treatment 42.03 ± 3.75, at 6 months being 25.01 ± 2.75 and at the first year 9.92 ± 2.67. VAS and the OSD were both significantly decreased after treatment (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Either conservative or surgical methods can be performed comfortably for adolescent lumbar disc herniations. We proposed surgical treatment for patients with incapacitating persistent low back pain or radicular pain that lasted more than 6 weeks, despite rest and medication. We also pursued the development of neurological deficits, including recurrent pain that disturbed routine life activities.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Contrary to static and dynamic balance, there is a lack of scientific evidence on the training induced changes in reactive balance control in response to unexpected perturbations in overweight and obese individuals. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the effect of 3 months of resistance and aerobic training programs on postural responses to unexpected perturbations under stable and unstable conditions in the overweight and obese. METHODS: A group of 17 overweight and obese subjects, divided into two groups, underwent either resistance or aerobic training for a period of 3 months (3 sessions per week).…Prior to and after completing the training, they performed the load release balance test while standing on either a stable or unstable surface, with eyes open and closed. RESULTS: Peak posterior center of pressure (CoP) displacement, and the time to peak posterior CoP displacement during a bipedal stance on a foam surface with eyes open (17.3%, p = 0.019 and 15.4%, p = 0.029) and eyes closed (15.0%, p = 0.027 and 13.2%, p = 0.034), decreased significantly. In addition, the total anterior to posterior CoP displacement, and the time from peak anterior to peak posterior CoP displacement, both with eyes open (18.1%, p = 0.017 and 12.2%, p = 0.040) and eyes closed (16.3%, p = 0.023 and 11.7%, p = 0.044), also significantly decreased. However, after completing the resistance training, the parameters registered while standing on a stable platform, both with eyes open and closed, did not change significantly. The group that underwent an aerobic training also failed to show any significant changes in parameters of the load release balance test. CONCLUSION: Three months of resistance training in overweight and obese subjects improves reactive balance control in response to unexpected perturbations under unstable conditions, both with and without visual cues. Due to the fact that this unstable load release balance test was found to be sensitive in revealing post-training changes, it would be suitable for implementing in the functional diagnostic for this group, in addition to complementing existing testing methods.
Keywords: Center of pressure, obesity, perturbation, postural responses, resistance exercises
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Two-thirds of adults worldwide will experience low back pain at some point in their life. In the following case series, we present four patients with sacroiliac (SI) joint instability and severe chronic low back pain, which was refractory to other treatment modalities. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections, a novel orthobiologic therapy, for reducing SI joint pain, improving quality of life, and maintaining a clinical effect. METHODS: Short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SFM), Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), and Oswestry Low Back Pain and Disability Index were used for evaluation…of treatment at pretreatment, 12-months and 48-months after treatment. RESULTS: At follow-up 12-months post-treatment, pooled data from all patients reported a marked improvement in joint stability, a statistically significant reduction in pain, and improvement in quality of life. The clinical benefits of PRP were still significant at 4-years post-treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Platelet-rich plasma therapy exhibits clinical usefulness in both pain reduction and for functional improvement in patients with chronic SI joint pain. The improvement in joint stability and low back pain was maintained at 1- and 4-years post-treatment.
Keywords: Musculoskeletal and joint disorders, drugs and medicines, orthopaedics, back pain, occupational and environmental medicine, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, ligament laxity, sports and exercise medicine, fibromyalgia, neuropathic pain, motor vehicle accident
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Management of a knee contracture is important for regaining gait ability in transtibial amputees. However, there has been little study of prosthesis training for enhancing mobility and improving range of motion in cases of restricted knee extension. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of adaptive training for an assist device (ATAD) for a transtibial amputee with a knee flexion contracture (KFC). A male transtibial amputee with KFC performed 4 months of ATAD with a multidisciplinary team. During the ATAD, the passive range of motion (PROM) in the knee, amputee mobility predictor (AMP) assessment,…center of pressure (COP) on a force plate-equipped treadmill, gait features determined by three-dimensional motion analysis, and Short-Form 36 Item Health Survey (SF-36) scores were evaluated. RESULTS: Following ATAD, PROM showed immediate improvement (135.6 ± 2.4° at baseline, 142.5 ± 1.7° at Step 1, 152.1 ± 1.8° at Step 2, 165.8 ± 1.9° at Step 3, and 166.0 ± 1.4° at Step 4); this was followed by an enhanced COP. Gradually, gait features also improved. Additionally, the AMP score (5 at baseline to 29 at Step 4) and K-level (K0 at baseline to K3 at Step 4) increased after ATAD. Along with these improvements, the SF-36 score also improved. CONCLUSIONS: ATAD could be beneficial for transtibial amputees by relieving knee contractures and improving gait.
Keywords: Adaptive training for assist device, transtibial amputee, knee flexion contracture, gait ability, quality of life
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To present a unique case of guide wire breakage as a rare complication during posterolateral endoscopic lumbar discectomy. BACKGROUND: Posterolateral endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) has become a routinely performed minimally invasive spinal procedure. However, several complications of PELD have attracted our concerns, including the intraoperative injury to neural and vascular structures and failure of the surgery. We have countered a rare intraoperative complication of guidewire breakage during a PELD procedure, as far as we know, this has not been reported previously, and we wish to draw attention to this hazard. METHODS: The…medical records, operative reports, and radiographical imaging studies of a single patient were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: A 28-year-old man presented with right posterior sciatica for 3 months was admitted to the hospital. Unsatisfactory improvement was observed under supervised conservative treatment. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a disc herniation at the L4-L5 level. After preoperative evaluation, a PELD procedure was performed with local anesthesia. After advancement of guide wire and discography, the guiding rod was found not in the vicinity of the extruding disc fragment. Therefore, the operator tried to redirect the guiding rod. However, after several attempts, the guide wire was broken in the disc fragment under imaging. With the patient's permit, the operator inserted the working cannula to the broken end of guide wire and retrieved it using straightened grasping forceps. Then foraminotomy and fragmentectomy were accomplished under endoscope. The patient made uneventful recovery and was free of symptoms for the following 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the guide wire breakage during PELD procedures is a rare but a serious complication. An appropriate manner and operation is very important to prevent this complication. Once it does occur, the remnant of the guide wire can possibly be retrieved under endoscope with great experience. However, as for the beginners, a transfer to open operation is suggested to prevent new complications.
Keywords: Endoscopic discectomy, case report, intraoperative complication, instrument breakage, working zone, minimally invasive surgery
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The syrinx can occur in any region of the spinal cord and is common in cervical and/or thoracic region, and distributing along spinal cord is unusual, especially association with Chiari II malformation and scoliosis. OBJECTIVE: To report a first case of entire syringomyelia associated with Chiari II malformation and severe scoliosis and hydrocephalus. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient began to experience symptoms of bilateral hand weakness in adulthood. In this patient, MR imaging of the brain and spine showed syrinx along entire spine and hydrocephalus, cerebellar tonsillar herniation, and expansion of the fourth…ventricle and posterior cranial fossa. The patient underwent operative treatment to prevent the progression of her neurological deficit. At 12 months' follow-up, the patient's neurological deficit remains stable with the scoliosis left untreated. CONCLUSIONS: Foramen magnum decompression, duraplasty and syrinx-shunting are effective methods even to CM II and entire syrinx.
Keywords: Entire syringomyelia, Chiari II malformation, severe scoliosis, hydrocephalus