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The Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease is an international multidisciplinary journal to facilitate progress in understanding the etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, genetics, behavior, treatment and psychology of Alzheimer’s disease.
The journal publishes research reports, reviews, short communications, book reviews, and letters-to-the-editor. The journal is dedicated to providing an open forum for original research that will expedite our fundamental understanding of Alzheimer’s disease.
Article Type: Research Article
Abstract: Background: The incidence of dementia is projected to rise over the coming decades, but with no sensitive diagnostic tests available. Vascular pathology precedes the deposition of amyloid and is an attractive early target. Objective: The aim of this review was to investigate the use of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation as a novel biomarker for mild cognitive impairment (MCI), focusing on transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Methods: 2,698 articles were identified from Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, and Web of Science databases. 306 articles were screened and quality assessed independently by two reviewers; 26 met …the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses were performed for each marker with two or more studies and limited heterogeneity. Results: Eleven studies were TCD, 8 NIRS, 5 magnetic resonance imaging, and 2 positron/single photon emission tomography. Meta-analyses showed reduced tissue oxygenation index, cerebral blood flow and velocity, with higher pulsatility index, phase and cerebrovascular resistance in MCI compared to controls. The majority of studies found reduced CO2 reactivity in MCI, with mixed findings in neuroactivation studies. Conclusion: Despite small sample sizes and heterogeneity, meta-analyses demonstrate clear abnormalities in cerebral hemodynamic and oxygenation parameters, even at an early stage of cognitive decline. Further work is required to investigate the use of cerebral hemodynamic and oxygenation parameters as a sensitive biomarker for dementia. Show more
Keywords: Cognitive dysfunction, functional neuroimaging, near-infrared spectroscopy, neurovascular coupling, transcranial Doppler ultrasonography
Citation: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 369-385, 2017
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