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The Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease is an international multidisciplinary journal to facilitate progress in understanding the etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, genetics, behavior, treatment and psychology of Alzheimer’s disease.
The journal publishes research reports, reviews, short communications, book reviews, and letters-to-the-editor. The journal is dedicated to providing an open forum for original research that will expedite our fundamental understanding of Alzheimer’s disease.
Article Type: Research Article
Abstract: The tau protein is an attractive target for therapy and diagnosis. We started a tau immunotherapy program about 13 years ago and have since demonstrated that active and passive immunotherapies diminish tau pathology and improve function, including cognition, in different mouse models. These findings have been confirmed and extended by several groups. We routinely detect neuronal, and to a lesser extent microglial, antibody uptake correlating with tau pathology. Antibodies bind tau aggregates in the endosomal/lysosomal system, enhancing clearance presumably by promoting their disassembly. Extracellular clearance has recently been shown by others, using antibodies that apparently are not internalized. As most …pathological tau is neuronal, intracellular targeting may be more efficacious. However, extracellular tau may be more accessible to antibodies, with tau-antibody complexes a target for microglial phagocytosis. The extent of involvement of each pathway may depend on numerous factors including antibody properties, degree of pathology, and experimental model. On the imaging front, multiple tau ligands derived from β-sheet dyes have been developed by several groups, some with promising results in clinical PET tests. Postmortem analysis should clarify their tau specificity, as in theory and based on histological staining, those are likely to have some affinity for various amyloids. We are developing antibody-derived tau probes that should be more specific, and have in mouse models shown in vivo detection and binding to pathological tau after peripheral injection. These are exciting times for research on tau therapies and diagnostic agents that hopefully can be applied to humans in the near future. Show more
Keywords: Antibodies, imaging, immunotherapy, tau
Citation: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 40, no. s1, pp. S113-S121, 2014
Article Type: Research Article
Abstract: Argyrophilic grain disease (AGD) is a sporadic 4 R tauopathy that usually presents in combination with other sporadic tauopathies or with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, and may contribute to dementia in older age patients. In previous studies, a detailed analysis of AGD pathology in the medial temporal lobe has been hampered by the common presence of concurrent AD changes. With the objective to assess the potentiality of AGD in research on tau propagation, here we present a study of a series of AGD postmortem cases (n = 53). The total series was divided in a subgroup of cases with Braak-stage …≤ II (n = 23) and a subgroup with Braak-stage>II or indeterminate (n = 30) in order to minimize interference with AD pathology. A detailed neuropathological evaluation of the medial temporal lobe was performed at three coronal levels with Gallyas stain, and immunostains with p62, AT8, and AT100 antibodies. Western blot analysis of the entorhinal and hippocampal cortex was performed in 8 cases with a panel of anti-tau antibodies. Cases were genotyped for APOE polymorphism and for H1/H2 alleles of the MAPT gene. All cases, and particularly lower Braak-stage cases, displayed a highly homogeneous pattern of involvement by argyrophilic grains and pretangles between connected regions (primarily basolateral nuclei of the amygdala, entorhinal/transentorhinal cortex, and hippocampal cortex). Staging of cases reveals progression of pathology along well-established neuroanatomical pathways. Western blot studies yielded a specific pattern of isoforms with a characteristic predominant band at 64 kDa. Genetic analysis showed a strong association with the H1 allele of the MAPT gene. AGD may thus be an optimal natural disease model for testing hypotheses related to tau propagation in human tissue. Show more
Keywords: Argyrophilic, dementia, grains, limbic, tau, tauopathy
Citation: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 40, no. s1, pp. S123-S133, 2014
Authors: Ando, Kunie | Kabova, Anna | Stygelbout, Virginie | Leroy, Karelle | Heraud, Céline | Frédérick, Christelle | Suain, Valérie | Yilmaz, Zehra | Authelet, Michèle | Dedecker, Robert | Potier, Marie-Claude | Duyckaerts, Charles | Brion, Jean-Pierre
Article Type: Research Article
Abstract: Active immunization using tau phospho-peptides in tauopathy mouse models has been observed to reduce tau pathology, especially when given prior to the onset of pathology. Since tau aggregates in these models and in human tauopathies are composed of full-length tau with many post-translational modifications, and are composed of several tau isoforms in many of them, pathological tau proteins bearing all these post-translational modifications might prove to be optimal tau conformers to use as immunogens, especially in models with advanced tau pathology. To this aim, we immunized aged wild-type and mutant tau mice with preparations containing human paired helical filaments (PHF) …emulsified in Alum-adjuvant. This immunization protocol with fibrillar PHF-tau was well tolerated and did not induce an inflammatory reaction in the brain or adverse effect in these aged mice. Mice immunized with four repeated injections developed anti-PHF-tau antibodies with rising titers that labeled human neurofibrillary tangles in situ. Immunized mutant tau mice had a lower density of hippocampal Gallyas-positive neurons. Brain levels of Sarkosyl-insoluble tau were also reduced in immunized mice. These results indicate that an immunization protocol using fibrillar PHF-tau proteins is an efficient and tolerated approach to reduce tau pathology in an aged tauopathy animal model. Show more
Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, neurofibrillary tangles, paired helical filaments-tau, tau vaccination
Citation: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 40, no. s1, pp. S135-S145, 2014
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