Authors: Carter, Chris J.
Diverse pathogens are detected in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brains. A bioinformatics survey showed that AD genome-wide association study (GWAS) genes (localized in bone marrow, immune locations and microglia) relate to multiple host/pathogen interactomes (Candida albicans , Cryptococcus neoformans , Bornavirus, Borrelia burgdorferri , cytomegalovirus, Ebola virus, HSV-1, HERV-W, HIV-1, Epstein-Barr, hepatitis C, influenza, Chlamydia pneumoniae , Porphyrymonas gingivalis , Helicobacter pylori, Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma cruzi ). These interactomes also relate to the AD hippocampal transcriptome and to plaque or tangle proteins. Upregulated AD hippocampal genes match those upregulated by multiple bacteria, viruses, fungi, or protozoa in immunocompetent cells. AD genes
…are enriched in GWAS datasets reflecting pathogen diversity, suggesting selection for pathogen resistance, as supported by the old age of AD patients, implying resistance to earlier infections. APOE4 is concentrated in regions of high parasitic burden and protects against childhood tropical infections and hepatitis C. Immune/inflammatory gain of function applies to APOE4, CR1, and TREM2 variants. AD genes are also expressed in the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is disrupted by AD risk factors (age, alcohol, aluminum, concussion, cerebral hypoperfusion, diabetes, homocysteine, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, obesity, pesticides, pollution, physical inactivity, sleep disruption, smoking) and by pathogens, directly or via olfactory routes to basal-forebrain BBB control centers. The BBB benefits from statins, NSAIDs, estrogen, melatonin, memantine, and the Mediterranean diet. Polymicrobial involvement is supported by upregulation of bacterial, viral, and fungal sensors/defenders in the AD brain, blood, or cerebrospinal fluid. AD serum amyloid-β autoantibodies may attenuate its antimicrobial effects favoring microbial survival and cerebral invasion leading to activation of neurodestructive immune/inflammatory processes, which may also be augmented by age-related immunosenescence. AD may thus respond to antibiotic, antifungal, or antiviral therapy.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, bacteria, blood-brain barrier, fungi, gene/environment, immune system, inflammation, microbes, virus
Citation: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Reports,
vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 125-157, 2017