Isokinetics and Exercise Science - Volume 31, issue 3
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Isokinetics and Exercise Science (IES) is an international journal devoted to the study of theoretical and applied aspects of human muscle performance. Since isokinetic dynamometry constitutes the major tool in this area, the journal takes a particular interest in exploring the considerable potential of this technology.
Isokinetics and Exercise Science publishes studies associated with the methodology of muscle performance especially with respect to the issues of reproducibility and validity of testing, description of normal and pathological mechanical parameters which are derivable from muscle testing, applications in basic research topics such as motor learning paradigms and electromyography. The journal also publishes studies on applications in clinical settings and technical aspects of the various measurement systems employed in human muscle performance research.
Isokinetics and Exercise Science welcomes submissions in the form of research papers, reviews, case studies and technical reports from professionals in the fields of sports medicine, orthopaedic and neurological rehabilitation and exercise physiology.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The knee is one of the most common injuries in sports. However, the incidence of knee injuries can be decreased by enhancing balance and neuromuscular control. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate how injury prevention programs (IPPs) that include balance training influence knee injury rates in athletes. METHODS: Data were obtained from different databases (1985–2021). Only randomised controlled trials that used IPPs that include balance training, were considered. Two investigators extracted data from the qualifying documents. The critical outcome data elements derived from the included studies…were the number of ACL/knee injuries, ACL/knee injury rates, exposure hours, compliance rate, and follow-up duration. RESULTS: Compared to the control groups, those who participated in the IPP had a 54% lower risk of knee injuries per 1000 hours of exposure (IRR 0.457 (95% CI 0.346–0.603), P = 0.001) and a 60% lower risk of ACL injuries per 1000 hours of exposure (IRR 0.401 (95% CI 0.215–0.750), P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: IPPs that include balance training may reduce the risk of knee injuries.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Those undergoing pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) often experience difficulty in perception; therefore, an easier PFMT method should be devised. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of combining PFMT with either vibration stimulation or visual feedback provided by a branded cushion (not a prototype) in increasing PFM muscle activity. Since PFM does not involve large joint movements, muscle activity was a suitable indicator. METHODS: Twenty healthy adults were included in this study. All participants performed PFMT under three conditions using a branded cushion: vibration stimulation, visual feedback, and a control. All three conditions…were provided separately. PFM activity of the midline of the perineum at two points was recorded as the root mean square measured using PFM electromyography, measured twice for each condition. Muscle activity ratio was obtained by calculating maximum voluntary contraction of PFM in pre- and post-PFMT conditions. RESULTS: PFM activity and muscle activity ratio were both significantly higher following PFMT under vibration stimulation and visual feedback conditions (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: PFMT accompanied by vibration stimulation or visual feedback could immediately raise PFM muscle activity. We believe this study contributes to improving PFMT efficiency by suggesting more suitable PFMT methods.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Portable metabolic carts are a popular tool to assess aerobic capacity and affirm many cardiorespiratory conditions. They may also measure strength training performance. Given their popularity and increased usage to assess strength training performance; their data accuracy and consistency are important to determine. OBJECTIVE: Measure Cosmed K4 b2 portable metabolic cart data repeatability from consecutive seated calf press workouts. METHODS: Fifteen women and twelve men did two workouts that began with a stationary cycling warm-up followed by calf presses. Gases were measured before the calf press portion of workouts to establish baseline VO 2…and VCO 2 values, as well as continually throughout and after the calf press protocol. Subjects were detached from the cart once gas values returned to baseline after workouts concluded. In addition to VO 2 and VCO 2 , repeatability was quantified for: breaths per minute, tidal volume, ventilation, O 2 uptake relative to body mass, expired O 2 and CO 2 fractions, percent fat and carbohydrate utilization, METS and total energy cost. Mean and peak values per variable were analyzed. Repeatability was assessed separately for male and female data, as well as with values pooled, by the following: intraclass correlation coefficients, eta squared, limits of agreement, coefficient of variation and smallest real difference percent. RESULTS: Per variable, repeatability values across workouts were low. Female intraclass correlation coefficient mean values were more repeatable for variables related to gas measurements, yet male data were generally more repeatable for those related to substrate usage. CONCLUSIONS: Results for some repeatability indices were influenced by measurement magnitude. Peak values were predictably less repeatable than those for mean values. Most smallest real differences percent scores are so high they were rendered irrelevant or meaningless to determine true differences among paired values. Results suggest low data repeatability that are likely appropriate and realistic for the exercise protocol, hardware and intensity examined.
Keywords: Non-steady state exercise, seated calf press, substrate utilization, variability
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The quantitative recruitment of motor units depends on specific demands, including movement velocity. DNA microarrays differ according to sex, and these sex-related differences affect the fiber type composition. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to demonstrate inter-sex differences in the isokinetic parameters, isokinetic phases, and muscle activities and to investigate the correlation between muscle activity and isokinetic data. METHODS: A total of 41 healthy adults (20 male, 21 female) performed concentric knee extension at angular velocities of 60 ∘ /s, 180 ∘ /s, and 240…∘ /s. The outcome measures consisted of the isokinetic peak moment (PM), normalized PM (PM/BW), total work, and power, alongside the acceleration, iso-speed and deceleration, sub-phases. Muscle activity was recorded from the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis using surface EMG. RESULTS: There were significant two-factor main effect and interaction between sex and angular velocity on the power of knee extension and isokinetic phase (p < 0.05). As the velocity increased, the increase in power of males was greater than that of females. In contrast, with the increase in velocity, PM, PM/BW, and total work decreased, but no significant interaction was observed between velocity and sex. At high velocity, males showed higher acceleration ability than females. CONCLUSION: The sex-dependent responses to velocity were more affected by differences in total movement time than force production. Fast isokinetic exercise should consider the acceleration ability rather than the ability to produce force.
Keywords: Isokinetic contraction, sexual difference, fast speed, acceleration phase, knee biomechanics
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence has demonstrated functional and cognitive-related benefits after Instability Resistance Training (IRT) in individuals, healthy as wellas patients presenting with neurological disorders. However, whether IRT may play a significant role in the postural control of older adults has not been established. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of 12- weeks of IRT on static postural control of older adults with subjective cognitive impairment. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, a total of 67 participants (aged 65 years and older) were randomly assigned to either 12 weeks of IRT (n =…22), traditional resistance training (RT) (n = 23), or a health education control group (CON) (n = 22). Static postural control was assessed using a force platform that recorded the displacement amplitude of the center of pressure (CoP) in the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions in bipedal support (30 seconds) with eyes open and closed. RESULTS: All groups increased AP displacement in the conditions of eyes open and closed. During the eyes-closed condition, only the IRT group increased the ML displacement. No between-group differences were detected in any postural control (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: 12 weeks of IRT does not improve the static postural control in older adults with cognitive impairment.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Obesity is thought to be a risk factor for cardiopulmonary diseases due to changed pulmonary mechanics. It also drastically lowers functional capability in both males and females. A routine physiotherapy program has been shown to be effective in the prevention and treatment of cardiopulmonary diseases. It also significantly increases functional capacity following coronary artery bypass grafting. However, the effect of a structured physiotherapy program in obese and non-obese patients has not been well explored. As such, the objective of this study is to determine the effect of a standardized physiotherapy program on pulmonary function and walking capacity in…obese and non-obese patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted on 50 obese (age 57.2 ± 6.3 Y) and non-obese (age 56.6 ± 5.7 Y) adults who were schedule for coronary artery bypass grafting. Their body mass index was used to separate them into two groups. Both groups followed a structured physiotherapy program from day 1 to day 7 post cardiac surgery. Both groups underwent spirometry test at baseline (preoperatively) and after day 4 and day 7 postoperatively as well as a six-minute walk test at baseline and on day 7 postoperatively. RESULTS: At baseline, obese individuals had significantly lower pulmonary and physical functioning. On postoperative day 4, both groups deteriorated, although the obese group deterioration was worse, in most of the pulmonary parameters. On postoperative day 7, both groups improved, though the non-obese group improved at a faster rate. In contrary, it was observed that the obese group improved more rapidly in terms of functional capacity. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicated that the outcomes of a structured physiotherapy program following coronary artery bypass grafting were different for persons who were obese compared to those who were not. Adipose tissue variations surrounding the rib cage, diaphragm, and visceral cavity may account for the observed rate of change between the two groups. Therefore, it is apparent that a new strategy for managing obese individuals who have undergone CABG is required.
Keywords: Coronary artery bypass grafting, obesity, rehabilitation, spirometry; six minute walk test
Abstract: BACKGROUND: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is an effective exercise method that could lead to favorable changes in obese and diabetic subjects. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of HIIT on serum omentin-1 levels, lipid profile, and insulin resistance in diabetic obese men. METHODS: Fifty obese men suffering from T2DM with ages between 40 and 60 years were enrolled. Subjects were divided into two groups: the HIIT (n = 26) and control group (n = 24). The HIIT group subjects underwent 12 weeks (3 sessions per…week) of HIIT program, while the control group subjects kept to their normal daily activities. Fasting blood glucose levels, serum omentin-1 levels, lipid profile, and insulin resistance were evaluated at baseline and after the experiment. RESULTS: HIIT resulted in significant improvements in the subjects’ body composition, serum omentin-1 levels, lipid profiles, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR (p < 0.05). Further, highly significant negative correlations were observed between serum omentin levels, on the one hand, and body mass index, body weight, and waist circumference, on the other. CONCLUSIONS: Twelve weeks of HIIT may be an effective training strategy to improve serum omentin-1 levels, body composition, lipid profile, and insulin sensitivity in diabetic obese men.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Muscle strength in the upper and lower limbs is a major contributing factor to punch force and is one of the keys to success in boxing. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between knee and shoulder strength and punching force in boxers. METHODS: Twenty-one boxers completed knee flexion, knee extension, shoulder external rotation and internal rotation isokinetic concentric contractions at slow (60 ∘ /s) and fast (180 ∘ /s) angular velocities. Maximal punch force tests included lead and rear straight arm punching were assessed…using a force platform. RESULTS: Pearson’s correlation coefficients revealed that knee extension (r = 0.646–0.848) and knee flexion (r = 0.470–0.646) peak torques were moderately to very strongly correlated with maximal punching force in lead and rear arms. The shoulder internal rotation (r = 0.492–0.634) and shoulder external rotation (r = 0.441–0.588) peak torques were moderate to strongly correlated with maximal punching force. Moreover, knee extension peak torques at 60 ∘ /s had higher correlation with maximal punching force. In contrast, shoulder internal rotation peak torques at 180 ∘ /s had a larger correlation with maximal punching force. CONCLUSIONS: The main findings indicated the importance of the capacity to generate maximum knee extension and rapid shoulder internal rotation strength, contributing to punch force production.