Isokinetics and Exercise Science - Volume 27, issue 2
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Isokinetics and Exercise Science (IES) is an international journal devoted to the study of theoretical and applied aspects of human muscle performance. Since isokinetic dynamometry constitutes the major tool in this area, the journal takes a particular interest in exploring the considerable potential of this technology.
Isokinetics and Exercise Science publishes studies associated with the methodology of muscle performance especially with respect to the issues of reproducibility and validity of testing, description of normal and pathological mechanical parameters which are derivable from muscle testing, applications in basic research topics such as motor learning paradigms and electromyography. The journal also publishes studies on applications in clinical settings and technical aspects of the various measurement systems employed in human muscle performance research.
Isokinetics and Exercise Science welcomes submissions in the form of research papers, reviews, case studies and technical reports from professionals in the fields of sports medicine, orthopaedic and neurological rehabilitation and exercise physiology.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Muscle strength, although usually measured by performance, can be measured by patient-report. OBJECTIVE: Review the utility and clinimetric properties of muscle strength assessed by patient-report. METHODS: PubMed and hand searches were used to identify relevant literature. Findings were systematically summarized. RESULTS: Most patient-report measures identified individuals with muscle weakness, however, the clinimetric properties of measures were highly limited. Particularly missing was information on reliability and responsiveness. CONCLUSIONS: There is a place for the inclusion of patient-reported muscle strength, but clinimetric support for its use is still…limited.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Shoulder function is directly related to scapular kinematics and the scapula has always been a part of shoulder rehabilitation. Kinesio Taping (KT) is a specific taping technique where flexible tapes indirectly stabilize underlying soft tissues to modify their behavior. KT has been utilized for scapular stabilization in shoulder rehabilitation but its effect on shoulder strength was not examined before. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this self-controlled therapeutic study was to assess the effect of KT on shoulder scapation (arm elevation in scapular plane) strength in healthy individuals. METHODS: This study was conducted on…160 shoulders of 80 healthy volunteers (34 males, 46 females; mean age: 23.8 [18–30]). The shoulder scaption strength was recorded, using an electronic dynamometer, as the maximal value of 3 consecutive measurements in two different forearm positions: ‘palm down’ and ‘empty can’. Two sets of measurements, 3 days apart, were taken. The results of untaped and taped measurements were compared. Scapular taping, dominant side, forearm position, sex, and body mass index (BMI) were analyzed. RESULTS: The test-retest findings of both forearm positions were highly correlated with ICCs ranging 0.978–0.990. There was no significant difference in strength between ‘without KT’ and ‘with KT’, 69.46 ± 26.94 N vs 70.33 ± 28.01 N, respectively (p = 0.126). In both experimental conditions, forearm position did not affect strength There was no significant difference between the results without and with Kinesio Taping in both forearm positions: p = 0.458 (without), p = 0.141 (with). Dominant side and male sex resulted in superior scores (p = 0.0001) while a positive correlation was calculated between BMI and shoulder strength (p = 0.0001, r = 0.4). CONCLUSIONS: Based on our comparisons, scapular KT does not appear to influence scaption strength in healthy individuals.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The Lichtenstein’s and Kugel’s procedures for inguinal hernia repair have been compared in terms of immediate complications, including hematoma, testicular pain and wound infection, and long-term outcomes such as chronic pain. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare trunk muscle strength, quality of life (QoL), and neuropathic pain (NP) components using a prospective controlled study following the above two procedures. METHODS: Sixty consecutive patients underwent elective inguinal hernia repair from 2013 until 2014. Thirty patients were operated using standard Lichtenstein, while 30 were treated with a Kugel patch. Six…months after initial surgery, trunk muscle strength and patient QoL were evaluated. Additionally, 40 healthy volunteers, matched for age and sex, were recruited for comparison. Trunk muscle strength was measured isokinetically, whereas QoL and pain level were assessed using the Short Form 36 (SF-36) and the PainDETECT questionnaire (PD-Q), respectively. RESULTS: Mean peak moment of trunk flexion and trunk flexor-extensor (agonist/antagonist) ratio were significantly lower in patients than in controls, while no differences were observed between the two surgery groups. In addition, trunk extension strength was mearly identical in all there (2 experimental, 1 control) groups. Only two patients in the Lichtenstein group and one patient in the Kugel group showed a PD-Q score over 19 and NP component. There was no difference in the PD-Q scores and SF-36 domains between the different surgery groups. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the outcome parameters evaluated in this study, none of the two surgical interventions is superior to the other. Therefore, the particular choice of surgical procedure should rely on other factors.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Basketball is an intermittent sport were both neuromuscular and aerobic fitness are essential for the players. Thereby, repeated sprint training seems to be a feasible training strategy to improve these physical attributes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to verify the effect of repeated sprint training on the anaerobic and aerobic performance in basketball players. METHODS: Seventeen college players were randomized into two groups, repeated sprint training (n = 9) and control group (n = 8). The repeated sprint training…group performed 2–3 sets of 6 × 30 m all-out sprints, twice per week, in addition to the regular training routine. The control group performed only regular training routine during six weeks on the pre-season. The dependent variables were aerobic fitness, vertical countermovement jump, repeated vertical jump ability, and repeated sprints ability. RESULTS: Repeated sprint training improve the best sprint time (p = 0.033), worst sprint time (p = 0.035), sprint decrement (p = 0.04), CMJ (p = 0.037), and peak speed in the incremental test (p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: Repeated sprint training is effective in conditioning neuromuscular quality-related abilities of short sprint speed, jump, and aerobic fitness in college basketball players during the last phase of the pre-season.
Keywords: Athletes, team sports, physical fitness, intermittent efforts, high-intensity interval training
Abstract: BACKGROUND: There is no information about the reliability of a comprehensive way to assess muscle tone that contains the different dimensions that define or could influence it in the ankle plantar flexors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relative and absolute test-retest intra-day and inter-day reliability of a comprehensive protocol for the assessment of muscle tone responsiveness of the ankle plantar flexors. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers completed the study. It was performed a methodological study protocol (SPIRITT). Assessments included passive resistive torque-to-ankle dorsiflexion at slow (10 ∘ /s) and fast (180 ∘…/s) velocities, muscle extensibility measured as passive dorsiflexion range of motion, maximum isometric force and surface electromyography. Three measures were taken with a one-hour (intra-day reliability) and a one-week (inter-day reliability) rest interval between sessions. Inter-session reliability was examined through typical percentage error (CV TE ), percentage of change in the mean and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). RESULTS: Passive resistive-torque using isokinetic showed better reliability (CV TE from 7.1% to 18.3% and ICC: 0.64 to 0.94) than variables obtained with electromyography (CV TE : 36.5% to 72.5%; ICC: 0.56 to 0.69) and intra-day reliability showed better results than inter-day reliability. Extensibility test and maximal isometric force showed a very good intra-day and inter-day reliability (ICC from 0.82 to 0.97). CONCLUSION: The comprehensive protocol of muscle tone assessment showed very good reliability. The protocol established provides a reliable tool to assess and characterise muscle status and the effect of therapeutic interventions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The effect of short-term interventions using high-velocity isokinetic or plyometric exercises has not been thoroughly investigated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a lower body 3-week protocol using an isokinetic or a plyometric exercise program on strength and jump performance. METHODS: Thirty-six non-trained men were randomly allocated to the following three groups: (i) Isokinetic only (ISO, n = 12), performed 6 sets of 10 repetitions of concentric leg extension and flexion at 300 ∘ ⋅ s - 1…using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex-System-3); (ii) Plyometric only (PLY, n = 12) performed 6 sets of 10 repetitions of vertical jump; and (iii) Control, non-training group (n = 12). A 3-week training program involving two weekly workout sessions was implemented. Pre and post intervention measurements of knee extensor and flexor maximal peak torque, total work and average power at 300 ∘ ⋅ s - 1 and vertical jump performance were determined. RESULTS: Compared to baseline ISO significantly (p < 0.05) increased knee extension peak torque and average power. No other significant differences were observed at post-intervention or between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to performing plyometric exercise alone, a 3-week intervention using only isokinetic training enhanced knee extensors strength. A more effective and specific neural adaptations driven by the isokinetic protocol over a short period of time could explain the observed responses.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: It is known that Voluntary Activation (VA) of muscles may be lower during isokinetic concentric (CON) contractions than during isometric (ISOM) contractions, and that it may be further decreased in various motor impairments. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to validate the Interpolated Twitch Technique (ITT) for quantifying VA of the Quadriceps femoris during CON contractions (knee extension at 60 and 120 ∘ /s, CON60 and CON120, respectively). METHODS: Pairs of electrical stimuli were delivered to the Quadriceps femoris of twenty-two healthy subjects at 50 ∘…of knee flexion. Participants were instructed to exert five different levels of effort in decreasing order between 100% and 20% maximal voluntary efforts in ISOM and CON contractions. RESULTS: Through a linear regression model, a significant relationship between measures of VA and moment was observed for all the three contraction conditions: slopes (95% confidence intervals) = 1.04 (0.98–1.11), 0.96 (0.89–1.02) and 0.84 (0.78–0.91); intercepts = - 5.22 (- 8.61–- 1.83), 4.16 (0.71–7.62) and 14.58 (10.76–18.39), for ISOM, CON60 and CON120 contractions, respectively. This supported the validity of the method. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that ITT can be a valid method for measuring VA during CON contractions, potentially useful both in sports and rehabilitation studies.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Kinesio Tape (KT) is one of the most common taping methods used to prevent injuries, rehabilitate injured athletes, and improve muscle performance. But there are no studies investigating the acute effect of reverse taping on the isokinetic muscle strength. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of KT applied to quadriceps (Q) and hamstring (H) muscles on knee extension (Ex) and flexion (Flx) strength, H/Q ratio, and fatigue index (FI). METHODS: In total, 17 healthy male subjects with a history of regular physical activity for at least 3 years participated in the study voluntarily. The…muscle facilitation and muscle inhibition techniques of KT were applied in reverse direction to the Q and H muscles, and concentric/concentric isokinetic Ex and Flx strengths of the knee were measured at 60, 180, and 240 ∘ /s. Isokinetic Ex and Flx strengths were measured without any application of KT, in trial 1 (T1). In trial 2 (T2), muscle facilitation was applied to Q, and muscle inhibition was applied to H. In trial 3 (T3), muscle facilitation was applied to H, and muscle inhibition was applied to Q. A body analyzer was used for height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) values. RESULTS: As for the strength, T2 showed higher scores compared to T1 and T3 at all angular velocities (P < 0.05). The values of the H/Q ratio at T2 were higher than at T1 at 180 and 240 ∘ /s (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found in the mean FI values between the trials at any of the test velocities. CONCLUSIONS: Simultaneous facilitation and inhibition, applied to Q and H, respectively, had a positive effect on both the Ex and Flx strengths and also on H/Q ratio at high angular velocities (180 ∘ and 240 ∘ ) in healthy individuals. The mechanism responsible for this improvement is probably associated with creating different tensions in Q and H muscle groups by the reverse application of KT.
Keywords: Isokinetic knee strength, Kinesio Tape, reverse taping, H/Q ratio
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adequate participant’s fixation affects measurement accuracy and performance of isokinetic exercise. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of different fixation methods and contraction modes on the kinetics and 3D kinematics of prone isokinetic knee flexor tests. METHODS: Fourteen healthy male participants performed maximal unilateral concentric and eccentric knee flexion movements with minimal (hand grips), moderate (grips, hip strap) and maximal (grips, thigh and hip strap, hip wedges, shoulder pads) fixation at 30 ∘ /s. RESULTS: Concentric and eccentric peak moments were highest at minimal and maximal fixation,…whereas contractional work peaked at minimal fixation. Axis alignment was best at moderate fixation. Initial axis alignment caused an average antero-cranial shift (2.0 and 0.1 cm) as well as mean roll and yaw angle tilts of - 0.1 ∘ and - 6.1 ∘ . Hip motion was significantly reduced at maximal fixation. Eccentric movements demonstrated a lower mean angular velocity (26.0 ∘ /s) than concentric tests (29.4 ∘ /s). CONCLUSIONS: Depending on their purpose, prone isokinetic knee flexor tests or training sessions should be conducted with minimal (maximal force production) or moderate (axis alignment) fixation. When interpreting and comparing isokinetic results, the examined kinematic and kinetic effects of different fixation methods should be taken into account.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Shoulder muscle strength has vital importance during passing, spike, shooting and turning underwater. OBJECTIVE: To compare bilateral absolute and relative shoulder extension-flexion peak moments of volleyball, handball, underwater hockey, and badminton players and to determine whether the decline in the average moment, power, and work measures were consistent with observed bilateral peak moment relationships. METHOD: A total of 44 healthy male athletes (16 underwater hockey: 22.45 ± 2.06 years; 8 volleyball: 22.38 ± 3.29 years; 9 handball: 22.56 ± 1.60 years; 11 badminton: 21.40…± 1.73 years) participated in the study. RESULTS: The differences between Dominant vs. non-dominant shoulder extension peak moment strength ratios (p < 0.05) were statistically significant among groups. There were significant differences between volleyball and badminton players in mean shoulder extension moment decline (p < 0.001) and mean shoulder extension work decline (p < 0.05) in the dominant side from the first to the third set. CONCLUSION: Peak moment only measurements could be inadequate to determine strength discrepancies among different sports branches and the assessment of the declines in the average moment, work and power parameters between the sets may be more beneficial for the examination of shoulder strength characteristics in athletes.
Keywords: Moment, work, power, the range of motion, overhead sports