Isokinetics and Exercise Science - Volume 24, issue 3
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Isokinetics and Exercise Science (IES) is an international journal devoted to the study of theoretical and applied aspects of human muscle performance. Since isokinetic dynamometry constitutes the major tool in this area, the journal takes a particular interest in exploring the considerable potential of this technology.
Isokinetics and Exercise Science publishes studies associated with the methodology of muscle performance especially with respect to the issues of reproducibility and validity of testing, description of normal and pathological mechanical parameters which are derivable from muscle testing, applications in basic research topics such as motor learning paradigms and electromyography. The journal also publishes studies on applications in clinical settings and technical aspects of the various measurement systems employed in human muscle performance research.
Isokinetics and Exercise Science welcomes submissions in the form of research papers, reviews, case studies and technical reports from professionals in the fields of sports medicine, orthopaedic and neurological rehabilitation and exercise physiology.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Worksite exercise to promote health is a relatively new concept in the industries of developing countries. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the first-time feasibilities and effects of worksite exercises on physical capabilities of workers in an industry with limited sport facilities. METHODS: A randomized controlled-study was conducted. Ninety-one female workers were randomly assigned to one of the three study groups: two exercise groups and a control group. The workers in the exercise groups participated in group exercises 3 times per week. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), the level…of hand skill, and hand grip strengths of the workers were measured before and after the 8-week intervention. RESULTS: Approximately 75% of the workers (n= 68) completed the study. Adherence was higher in the exercise groups. Overall, no improvement was observed in the control group. VO2 max increased in both exercise groups (p< 0.05) but no difference was recorded between the groups. The level of hand skill was the least affected in all groups. Strengthening exercises conducted with elastic bands were superior to the repetitive movements in terms of strength gains. CONCLUSION: Exercises capable of improving physical fitness and strength can be integrated into the usual workflow of an industrial workplace with minimal cost. Ensuring sport facilities and instruments during all working hours may improve adherence to worksite exercises.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Hamstring:quadriceps ratios (HQRs) have been studied as potential markers for an athlete's risk of injury, but little is known about how sport-specific experience affects HQRs. OBJECTIVE: This study compared isokinetic and isotonic strength measures, including determining HQRs, between American collegiate male rugby athletes with at least two years of experience (XP; n= 10) and those with less than two years of experience (IN; n= 14). METHODS: Isokinetic concentric (ConH) and eccentric (EccH) hamstring and concentric only quadriceps (ConQ) strength was measured at 60 and 180°/s. The strength ratio: Hcon/Qcon (HQR), was calculated…for both velocities, HQR60 , HQR180 , while the strength ratio: Hecc/Qcon, the dynamic control ratio (DCR), was likewise calculated, DCR60 and DCR180 . The isotonic strength was assessed via squat 1-repetition maximum. Analysis of covariance was used to examine differences between IN and XP while body weight and age served as the covariates. RESULTS: No significant differences were noted between groups in isokinetic or isotonic strength. However, a significant difference was observed in DCR60 (p = 0.047) between the two groups, with XP (0.94 ± 0.11) being greater than IN (0.81 ± 0.16). CONCLUSIONS: In view of the preliminary nature of this study, the implication of this finding is yet obscure. However, given the role of the DCR in an underlying proneness to injury, we suggest that a more comprehensive study with a substantial follow-up period is undertaken for uncovering the potential importance of this ratio vis-à-vis other major functional parameters as well as injury prediction and assessment of rehabilitation.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Typical judo exercise consists of many acyclic, intermittent activity involving different types of muscle contractions, which makes monitoring judo trainings' process effectiveness challenging. The following study applied the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a diagnostic tool in highly-trained judo athletes during an interval exercise, simulating the intermittent physical activity of a judo match. It was also designed to examine, whether muscle oxygenation, cardio-respiratory fitness capacity, and acid-base status differs between female (FJT) and male (MJT) athletes. METHODS: Judokas completed the same exercise protocol - a triple Wingate test separated by 4-minute rests. Before, directly…after each WAnT as well as 15 minutes and 1 hour after the third WAnT, blood lactate (LA) and acid-base balance were determined. During the testing session the breath-by-breath pulmonary gas exchange method was used. RESULTS: Recorded values of concentration changes in oxyhemoglobin (O2 Hb), deoxyhemoglobin (HHb) and absolute measure of O2 Hb saturation represented as tissue oxygenation index (TOI) revealed significant differences between groups (p≤ 0.05). Significant differences among cardio-respiratory factors were only noted between minute ventilation, and respiratory exchange ratio. Differences in blood lactate, HCO3 - , and arterial pH were noted after the second and third test as well as 15 minutes after the protocol's completion. CONCLUSION: Collected data indicate that muscle oxygenation during the supramaximal exercise differed between genders, likely due to the influence of blood lactate accumulation on oxygen unloading and reduction in blood flow. Using NIRS, metabolic differences between groups were non-invasively determined, with the recorded data confirming the significance of an aerobic metabolism in judo, even during high-intensity exercise.
Keywords: Judo, near infrared spectroscopy, high intensity interval exercise
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Despite widespread use of 6 and 30 second Wingate anaerobic tests (WAnT), performance reliability of these protocols over repeated trials in active males and females has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the performance reliability and test sensitivity of the 6 s and 30 s WAnT. METHODS: Twenty physically active participants (10 males and 10 females) completed a 6 s and 30 s WAnT against 7.5% body mass resistance on four occasions. RESULTS: Peak power output (PPO) and mean power output (MPO) did not differ across trials…for either gender. Male PPO in both sprint durations demonstrated random variation (standard error of measurement (SEM)) ≤ 3.9% in all between-trials comparisons. For MPO, SEM was ≤ 2.9% in all comparisons. For females, random variation in PPO in both sprint durations was lower in trial 3-4 than earlier pairs of trials. MPO between trials in the 6 s sprint was variable, with the smallest variation between trials 1-2. For the 30 s sprint, MPO was more stable across trials. Across all four trials, only MPO in the 30 s test for males displayed good test sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, familiarisation may not be required to establish consistent performance in physically active males or females during the 6 and 30 s WAnT. Furthermore, general marginal test sensitivity in both tests and genders suggests that results of WAnT in physically active participants should not be used to investigate the genuine effect of an intervention.
Keywords: Performance, testing, cycle, sprint, power