Isokinetics and Exercise Science - Volume 20, issue 4
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Isokinetics and Exercise Science (IES) is an international journal devoted to the study of theoretical and applied aspects of human muscle performance. Since isokinetic dynamometry constitutes the major tool in this area, the journal takes a particular interest in exploring the considerable potential of this technology.
Isokinetics and Exercise Science publishes studies associated with the methodology of muscle performance especially with respect to the issues of reproducibility and validity of testing, description of normal and pathological mechanical parameters which are derivable from muscle testing, applications in basic research topics such as motor learning paradigms and electromyography. The journal also publishes studies on applications in clinical settings and technical aspects of the various measurement systems employed in human muscle performance research.
Isokinetics and Exercise Science welcomes submissions in the form of research papers, reviews, case studies and technical reports from professionals in the fields of sports medicine, orthopaedic and neurological rehabilitation and exercise physiology.
Abstract: Since its inception, isokinetic dynamometry has provided unique insights into muscle function evaluations for human performance and rehabilitation, thus they are commonly utilized in training and rehabilitative centers, as well as in exercise science laboratories. Because such devices are clinically relevant in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal health and assessment of athletic prowess, it is important that isokinetic dynamometry yield accurate performance values. Assuming no change in a person's exercise performance capabilities, multiple…isokinetic dynamometry bouts should elicit data values that are reproducible. Variability that results from test-retest research designs, and undermines data reliability, may be subdivided into mechanical and physiological sources of measurement error. The following paper offers a review of literature pertaining to the reproducibility of isokinetic dynamometry data. The literature is subdivided and categorizes a variety of test-retest study design papers according to the musculoskeletal segment under examination. While most papers describe their data reproducibility results as acceptable or better, a consistent outcome from the literature is greater variability at higher angular velocities. For isokinetic exercise, this is perhaps its most pressing concern, and future recommendation, that should be addressed with the advent of newer dynamometer models. Such improvements will continue to make isokinetic dynamometry a modality that offers the most unique insights on muscle function evaluations for athletic performance and clinical rehabilitation.
Abstract: Background: Isokinetic measurements are widely used to assess strength capacity in a clinical or research context. Nevertheless, the validity of isokinetic measures for identifying strength deficits and the evaluation of therapeutic process regarding different pathologies is yet to be established. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to evaluate the validity of isokinetic measures in a specific case: that of muscular capacity in low back pain (LBP). Methods: A literature search (PubMed; ISI Web…of Knowledge; The Cochrane Library) covering the last 10 years was performed. Relevant papers regarding isokinetic trunk strength measures in healthy and patients with low back pain (PLBP) were searched. Peak torque values [Nm] and peak torque normalized to body weight [Nm/kg BW] were extracted for healthy and PLBP. Ranked mean values across studies were calculated for the concentric peak torque at 60°/s as well as the flexion/extension (F/E) ratio. Results: 34 publications (31 flexion/extension; 3 rotation) were suitable for reporting detailed isokinetic strength measures in healthy or LBP (untrained adults, adolescents, athletes). Adolescents and athletes were different compared to normal adults in terms of absolute trunk strength values and the F/E ratio. Furthermore, isokinetic measures evaluating therapeutic process and isokinetic rehabilitation training were infrequent in literature (8 studies). Conclusion: Isokinetic measurements are valid for measuring trunk flexion/extension strength and F/E ratio in athletes, adolescents and (untrained) adults with/without LBP. The validity of trunk rotation is questionable due to a very small number of publications whereas no reliable source regarding lateral flexion could be traced. Therefore, isokinetic dynamometry may be utilized for identifying trunk strength deficits in healthy adults and PLBP.
Keywords: Isokinetic, validity, low back pain, peak torque, trunk
Abstract: Diseases in the nervous system are among the most frequently occurring disabling conditions. A symptom common for these diseases is progressive muscular weakness, which can have a profound effect on a person's ability to perform activities of daily living. Measurements of muscle strength and interventions aiming at improving strength are two major components in the rehabilitation of individuals with diseases of the nervous system. Over the past decade, interest in the assessment of muscle function in…various nervous system diseases has increased, and isokinetic dynamometry has been established as a valuable tool to understand the complexity of muscle function in these diseases and the effects of various rehabilitation interventions. In this review, we will present some of our experiences using isokinetic dynamometry to evaluate muscle function in neurological diseases, and how it has increased our knowledge about the effects of different rehabilitation interventions.
Keywords: Muscle, skeletal, muscle strength dynamometer, nervous system diseases, postpoliomyelitis syndrome, rehabilitation, reproducibility of results, research design, stroke
Abstract: Our understanding of the age and sex associated development in dynamic strength is based on a relatively small evidence base. This may be due in part to the proposed ethical difficulties in assessing paediatric populations combined with the expense associated with longitudinal studies. Despite this isokinetic testing of children has doubled in the last 5 years and has started to include data on clinical populations. A number of studies have demonstrated that isokinetic testing in children…can be reliable given appropriate adaptations to equipment as well as the application of paediatric specific procedures, especially the inclusion of extensive habituation and familiarisation sessions. Data on the age and sex associated differences in dynamic strength are relatively consistent, indicating little sex differences up until the age of about 13/14 years. However changes in dynamic strength with age and maturation appear to be both muscle group and muscle action specific. Where comparisons of children of differing chronological or biological age are to be made appropriate allometric scaling techniques need to be employed to control for differences in body size. Studies on dynamic strength in children should begin to move away from descriptive studies and start to explore the mechanisms associated with the changes in strength, as well as applying findings to practical situations (for example injury prevention). More studies are needed on clinical populations to help to define decrements in dynamic strength and to help in applying appropriate strengthening programmes to enhance quality of life.
Abstract: Isokinetic strength evaluation of the quadriceps (Q) and hamstrings (H), in both concentric (con) and eccentric (ecc) mode of contraction, is an important part of the comprehensive evaluation and rehabilitation of athletes. Systematic preseason isokinetic evaluation of the knee is very useful in highlighting the athletes at risk for those injuries as well as for the optimization of the training process. The main purpose of this short review was to present the major findings of studies…relating to this issue.
Abstract: Hand-held dynamometry is a portable and objective alternative for measuring muscle strength. This paper reviews issues relevant to instrumentation and procedures. Thereafter it summarizes information on the clinimetric properties of hand-held dynamometry. Normative values are briefly addressed.