Isokinetics and Exercise Science - Volume 2, issue 1
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Isokinetics and Exercise Science (IES) is an international journal devoted to the study of theoretical and applied aspects of human muscle performance. Since isokinetic dynamometry constitutes the major tool in this area, the journal takes a particular interest in exploring the considerable potential of this technology.
Isokinetics and Exercise Science publishes studies associated with the methodology of muscle performance especially with respect to the issues of reproducibility and validity of testing, description of normal and pathological mechanical parameters which are derivable from muscle testing, applications in basic research topics such as motor learning paradigms and electromyography. The journal also publishes studies on applications in clinical settings and technical aspects of the various measurement systems employed in human muscle performance research.
Isokinetics and Exercise Science welcomes submissions in the form of research papers, reviews, case studies and technical reports from professionals in the fields of sports medicine, orthopaedic and neurological rehabilitation and exercise physiology.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the comparability of measures of knee extension strength (force) obtained with a hand-held dynamometer by two examiners of similar strength but substantially different experience. The knee extension force of 24 subjects was measured twice unilaterally by each of the two examiners. A two-way analysis of variance revealed no significant difference between examiners or across trials in the magnitude of knee extension force measured. Each examiner's repeated measurements were highly reliable [intraclass correlation coefficient (3, 1) ≥ .950]. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the mean of the two examiners' measurements was also high…(.948). The results suggest that, when examiners possess adequate strength, high intrarater and interrater reliability are possible for measurements of knee extension strength. Tester experience was not shown to be critical to such reliability.
Abstract: This investigation sought to gather data about two different methods of altering patellar alignment in patients with anterior knee pain (patellofemoral pain syndrome). Concentric and eccentric quadriceps torque at 60 deg/sec was measured during three different conditions in 30 subjects with a history of anterior knee pain. The Palumbo Brace and the McConnell Taping Technique were compared to an “untreated” condition. The taping method appeared to produce significantly higher concentric and eccentric torque output, and the brace significantly higher eccentric output, as compared to the control condition. Perceived pain was also formally analyzed, and although both the brace and the…tape corresponded to significantly lower values of perceived pain, the pain reports were unrelated to the observed torque changes. Therefore, subjects did not merely demonstrate increased torque output due to a perception of less pain.
Keywords: Patellar alignment, brace and McConnell taping, eccentric and concentric assessments
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to describe the activity of the quadriceps femoris during isokinetic eccentric activation. The subjects were 25 volunteer students (20–30 yr of age) in which both legs were analyzed (n = 50). Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus medialis obliquus (VMO), rectus femoris (RF), and vastus lateralis (VL) was recorded with surface electrodes as subjects exerted a maximal eccentric activation at 30 deg/sec over three trials. There were no significant differences between the VMO, RF, and VL regarding onset, cessation, or duration of activity. Significant differences were found pertaining to EMG activity, rise time, and…peak amplitude (p < .05). These results are clinically important in that the VMO is significantly more active than the RF and VL during an eccentric action; therefore, consideration to the VMO may be beneficial when rehabilitating the patient to return to functional activities.
Abstract: This study examines the electromyographic (EMG) and joint movements seen during open (Cybex) and closed chain (StairMaster) exercises. The quadriceps, hamstrings, anterior tibialis, medial gastrocnemius, and gluteus muscle groups were monitored for EMG activity and joint movements (range-of-motion and angular velocity) while 10 subjects performed the aforementioned exercise patterns. Concentric muscular action was seen in both patterns of exercise, with greater co-contraction and synchronous actions being present with StairMaster exercise. The authors propose this exercise more closely simulates weightbearing/functional patterns, providing a strong recommendation for its use in rehabilitation of the lower extremity.
Abstract: This study examined the effect of gravity correction on concentric and eccentric average force of the right and left side shoulder rotator muscles and on the external/internal rotation reciprocal muscle group ratios. Thirty-three males were tested on a Kinetic Communicator dynamometer at 150 deg/sec from a seated position with the shoulder abducted to 90 deg and positioned along the frontal plane. Gravity correction procedures were followed prior to testing, and both the gravity-uncorrected (GU) and gravity-corrected (GC) values were obtained from the dynamometer's software. Paired t-tests indicated the gravity correction procedure increased every value obtained during external rotation and decreased…all values obtained during internal rotation. Also, the concentric and eccentric external/internal rotation reciprocal muscle group ratios were all higher as a result of the gravity correction procedure. These findings were consistent with previous reports on the effect of gravity correction on lower extremity muscle groups. In particular, gravity correction significantly added to the muscle group opposed by gravity (external rotators) and detracted from the muscle group assisted by gravity (internal rotators). Therefore correction for the effects of gravity is recommended during isokinetic assessment of the shoulder internal and external rotator muscle groups.
Keywords: External/internal rotation ratio, concentric and eccentric average force, gravity correction
Abstract: During rehabilitation of extensor mechanism dysfunction, a successful transition from isometrics to isokinetics is essential. As discussed in the literature, previous protocols made a direct transition from isometrics to isokinetics or isotonics. An alternative route may be taken with the patient by placing him or her on the isotonic mode of the Kinetic Communicator. The isotonic mode is a transitional step in the rehabilitation protocol which offers several advantages such as freely accelerating and decelerating movement, slower speeds, and the ability to be able to progress speed and force. The isotonic mode uses a patient feedback system joined with preset…eccentric and concentric force settings to develop increased quadriceps control. The protocol can be gradually progressed with patient tolerance, and increased speeds can be attained to make an easy transition to higher-speed isokinetics. The isotonic mode is most successful with tension and friction type injuries, as presented in two case studies.
Keywords: Extensor mechanism dysfunction, functional progression, isotonic mode/Kin Com