Isokinetics and Exercise Science - Volume 12, issue 4
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Isokinetics and Exercise Science (IES) is an international journal devoted to the study of theoretical and applied aspects of human muscle performance. Since isokinetic dynamometry constitutes the major tool in this area, the journal takes a particular interest in exploring the considerable potential of this technology.
Isokinetics and Exercise Science publishes studies associated with the methodology of muscle performance especially with respect to the issues of reproducibility and validity of testing, description of normal and pathological mechanical parameters which are derivable from muscle testing, applications in basic research topics such as motor learning paradigms and electromyography. The journal also publishes studies on applications in clinical settings and technical aspects of the various measurement systems employed in human muscle performance research.
Isokinetics and Exercise Science welcomes submissions in the form of research papers, reviews, case studies and technical reports from professionals in the fields of sports medicine, orthopaedic and neurological rehabilitation and exercise physiology.
Abstract: Objectives: To explore the role of muscular strength and imbalance as predisposing factors in the development of anterior knee pain syndrome (AKPS). Methods: 96 male military recruits without history of knee pain volunteered for the study. Each volunteer underwent an isokinetic test prior to the start of a strenuous training program (approximately 8 to 12 hours/day for 6 weeks). The isokinetic test consisted of concentric contractions of the knee flexors and extensors at 60°/s…and 240°/s. A detailed history and clinical examination of the patellofemoral joint was performed on each recruit. Independent sample t-tests were used to compare the isokinetic muscle parameters in recruits who developed AKPS during the training (pathological group) and in those who did not (control group). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to define the predictive outcome of anthropometrics and the isokinetic parameters for the development of AKPS. Results: 31 recruits developed AKPS. Absolute and bodyweight normalized peak extensor torque at 60°/s was significantly lower in the pathological group in comparison to the control group. Significant lower peak torque/BMI (Body Mass Index) were also indicated at both velocities. Recruits who developed AKPS had a shorter stature. No regression model could be set up to give any predictive value to the analyzed parameters. Conclusions: Recruits with shorter stature and lower quadriceps strength are more prone to develop AKPS during BMT. However, as the etiology of AKPS is multifactorial these parameters alone may not suffice to predict the occurrence of this pathology. On the other hand, the results of this study emphasize the importance of the reinforcement of quadriceps strength in the treatment and prevention of AKPS.
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the reproducibility of postural stability scores in blind athletes. Design: Within-subject, repeated trials of postural stability. Setting: Laboratory located at a physical medicine and rehabilitation center. Participants: Eighteen congenitally blind goal-ball players. Main outcome measures: Three postural stability indices: overall, anteroposterior and mediolateral was evaluated. Means of each day and of the best score of each day were calculated from the three test trials. Results: No significant differences were determined between…the mean score on each of the two days or between the mean score and the mean of the best score of each day. Intraclass coefficients (ICC) for the two testing days ranged from 0.59 to 0.83 based on the mean value, and from 0.40 to 0.86 based on the best value. The standard error of measurement (SEM) ranged between 0.4–1.1, which was equivalent to 18% of the stability index scores. Conclusions: Based on both ICC and SEM results, findings derived from this postural balance test have acceptable reproducibility in the overall and anteroposterior indices but only fair reproducibility in the mediolateral index.
Abstract: Objective: To determine the influence of fatigue on active and passive muscle stiffness when the muscle/tendon complex has been exposed to high-intensity dynamic exercises of a short duration. Subjects and methods: Fifteen (see: Methods: 2.1 subjects) healthy women aged 23 ± 2 years participated. Active and passive stiffness of the calf muscle was measured on an isokinetic dynamometer using electrical stimulation and passive stretch (200°/s). The stiffness test was conducted before and immediately after…high-intensity dynamic exercises of the plantar flexors performed until exhaustion. Results: The forces generated by the same electrical stimulation level were significantly higher before than after the fatigue test. No significant changes could be demonstrated regarding active or passive stiffness before and after the fatigue protocol. However individual changes in active stiffness of about 40% were noted. Conclusion: Even though no significant changes in stiffness were apparent after the fatiguing exertion large individual changes could be noted. This is an indication that stiffness in the calf muscle after high-intensity dynamic exercises may not correspond to the peripheral fatigue.
Keywords: triceps surae, electrical stimulation, endurance, active stiffness, passive stiffness
Abstract: There is no consensus on the optimal isokinetic dynamometry parameters to clinically assess shoulder disorders. Therefore, this study aimed to establish which parameters are best able to discriminate between shoulder patients and healthy subjects, focusing on peak torques and peak torque ratios. Isokinetic dynamometric measurements of both shoulders were made in 20 healthy subjects and these data were compared with baseline measurements in 9 patients with shoulder disorders. The different outcome measures were…compared by testing for significant group differences between patients and healthy subjects and by scoring how the patient data compared to the normal range of values found in healthy subjects. Significant differences between patients and healthy subjects were found for the peak torques, but not for the agonist-antagonist peak torque ratios. In addition, there were significant differences for the dominant/non dominant ratios of the peak torques but not for the dominant/non dominant ratios of the peak torque ratios. The percentage of patients with a standard deviation score outside the 90% normal distribution of healthy subjects was largest (>78%) for the involved/uninvolved (I/U) ratio of the peak torques. It was concluded that bilateral comparison of peak torques is the most appropriate outcome parameter to distinguish patients from healthy subjects.
Keywords: isokinetic dynamometry, shoulder, parameters, clinical practice
Abstract: The purpose of this study to verify the effect of playing goalball on some measures of motor fitness. One hundred and three children (age13–15 years) with varying degrees of blindness were assessed for motor fitness. All participants were male. The participants underwent motor fitness (balance, handgrip, flexibility, vertical jump, isokinetic concentric peak torque) assessments. There were significant differences between goalball players and non-goalball players regarding many motor fitness components. Non-goalball players were…inferior in all motor fitness compared with goalball players. This study suggests that goalball may be considered effective option to improve motor skills in visually impaired children.
Abstract: This study compared the strength and fatigue characteristics of the trunk in international rowers and non-rowing controls. 39 international rowers (mean age 27.4 ± 4.9, 20 females, 19 males) and 35 control subjects who did not row (mean age 23.2 ± 3.2, 20 males, 15 females) were recruited and parameters of trunk flexion-extension strength including isometric fatigue were recorded tested on a Cybex Norm Isokinetic Testing System. The rowers were significantly stronger (P < 0.001) in all…measured parameters of back strength than the control group (isometric extension strength 249.3 N/m ± 52.1 (SD) in rowers compared with 178.6 N/m ± 85 (SD) in controls). Greater strength in the rowing group was most significant in the later stages of range. Both populations demonstrated marked fatigue of the trunk muscles, although this was more prominent in the rowers (p < 0.05 in flexion). In general, values of extensor strength were markedly greater than flexion strength, although this was less so in rowers. Consequently the trunk extensor-flexor ratios were lower in the rowing population. In conclusion, elite rowers are significantly stronger than control subjects. It is of interest that these strength gains are not proportional throughout range and this may be related to the rowing action, and may be of importance with respect to future development of LBP.
Abstract: This study examined the adequacy of hand-grip dynamometry for characterizing upper limb strength after stroke. It involved the secondary analysis of data from 26 patients (age = 71.1 ± 11.7 yr) hospitalized for acute stroke. Primary data were bilateral measurements of grip strength obtained with a Jamar dynamometer and elbow flexion and shoulder abduction strength obtained with a MicroFET 2 dynamometer. Adequacy was characterized by the relationship between grip, elbow flexion, and shoulder abduction strengths.…Correlations between measurements from the same limb were high and significant (p < 0.05) on both the weak (r = 0.753–0.937) and strong (r = 0.735–0.876) sides. Factor analysis distinguished two strength components: weak side (loadings = 0.910–0.982) and strong side (loadings = 0.912–0.965). Cronbach's alphas were 0.840 and.844 for the weak and strong sides, respectively. Although any of the dynamometrically measured actions are adequate for characterizing strength of either side after stroke, simplicity of hand-grip dynamometry upholds its utilization.