Isokinetics and Exercise Science - Volume 11, issue 4
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Isokinetics and Exercise Science (IES) is an international journal devoted to the study of theoretical and applied aspects of human muscle performance. Since isokinetic dynamometry constitutes the major tool in this area, the journal takes a particular interest in exploring the considerable potential of this technology.
Isokinetics and Exercise Science publishes studies associated with the methodology of muscle performance especially with respect to the issues of reproducibility and validity of testing, description of normal and pathological mechanical parameters which are derivable from muscle testing, applications in basic research topics such as motor learning paradigms and electromyography. The journal also publishes studies on applications in clinical settings and technical aspects of the various measurement systems employed in human muscle performance research.
Isokinetics and Exercise Science welcomes submissions in the form of research papers, reviews, case studies and technical reports from professionals in the fields of sports medicine, orthopaedic and neurological rehabilitation and exercise physiology.
Abstract: Optimization of different forms of training and testing in sports and therapy has traditionally been debated by various groups. Especially, the use of so-called open and closed kinetic chain exercises has frequently been a focal point. Scientific studies have indicated that no specific form of exercise and/or training has any particular advantage over the other. This applies to both assessment of efficiency, consideration of compression and shear forces, muscular activity and the extent of co-contractions.…Unlike the broadly-applied non-specific and uncritical assessment of open and closed kinetic chain exercises, a specific application using the advantages of both procedures must be considered due to clinical, therapeutic and training-physiological aspects. Specificity refers to the training of either an isolated joint-muscle unit (arthron) or a system (group) of joints and muscles. Considering the original definitions and past misinterpretations, it appears logical to emphasize the role of physiological mechanisms operating in each form of training and testing. Therefore, the use of the term: single-joint (SJ) or multi-joint (MJ) training, is recommended since this would best reflect the area of application, according to a recent consensus expressed by EISCSA. Consequently, SJ and MJ exercises should be applied both in isolation and in combination as indicated by the principles of specificity. On the other hand, continuous use of the terms open and closed kinetic chain exercises is confusing, erroneous, leads to polarizing discussions and should hence be relegated to the past.
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a general conditioning (callisthenic exercise) versus a machine based resistance-training protocol or an isokinetic exercise program would be similarly effective in improving knee extension muscular performance in healthy inactive elderly. Fifty two individuals, 26 men and 26 women, were randomly assigned to one of four groups: control group (C, n=10), the isokinetic strengthening group (ISO, n=12), the multi-joint resistance training group (RES,…n=15) and the calisthenic exercised group (CAL, n=15). The training protocol for the ISO included concentric isokinetic extension and flexion of the knee, for the RES included leg extension, leg curls and leg press and for the CAL included aerobic exercise accompanied with music, general calisthenics and activities targeted to reaction time and agility improvement. The isokinetic concentric testing method applied prior to and at the end of the training period to assess peak muscle torque of the right knee extensors. MANOVA repeated measures (2 × 4, time by treatment) revealed that at 60°/s angular velocity there was statistically significant improvement in performance for the RES group in comparison to control group. At 180°/s angular velocity the results revealed, statistically significant improvement in performance for the RES and ISO group also. In conclusion, in older adults isokinetic exercise and resistance training results in larger increases in strength compared with callisthenic exercise.
Keywords: elderly, isokinetic, muscular performance, strength training
Abstract: The aim of this research was to assess the characteristics of strength-velocity parameters of the trunk muscles in girls with idiopathic scoliosis vs. controls. Isokinetic evaluation of spinal flexors and extensors for both groups consisted of concentric testing at 90 and 120°/s and an additional test at 60°/s and endurance testing in the experimental group only. Girls with scoliosis had significantly lower strength parameters but performed better with respect to velocity parameters.…The findings indicate large limitations of functional capacity of trunk muscles in girls with a diagnosed idiopathic scoliosis.
Abstract: Aim: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of different test positions on the static strength of ankle joint muscles and the EMG activity of the calf and thigh muscles in patients with upper motor neuron lesion due to stroke. Set-up: Static torque was recorded during isometric plantar flexion muscle action while sitting, standing and lying prone, in both the affected and the non-affected leg in seven patients. The EMG activity was recorded in the…soleus, medial gastrocnemius, anterior tibial and rectus femoris muscles. Results: The affected leg showed lowered torque values in all positions compared to the non-affected leg. There were no significant differences in the torque values depending on positions nor in the EMG recordings. When the standing position was used as "normative", there was a significant difference in the EMG values between the affected and non-affected leg when sitting with the knee bent and while standing with the knee straight; i.e. in closed-chain exercises. Discussion: Training and testing of strength in the plantar flexor muscles in stroke patients may be done in both open and closed-chain exercises as far as force development is concerned. However, the outcome of these different types of exercises might be influenced by the position of the knee joint since the gastrocnemius is a two-joint muscle.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships of muscle oxygenation determined by using near-infrared spectroscopy with muscle force and electromyography during isometric contraction in ten healthy males. The subjects performed sustained isometric extension at 30%, 50% and 70% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for 10 seconds, respectively. Near-infrared spectroscopy and surface electromyography were simultaneously recorded from the right vastus medialis muscle. The rate of decrease in muscle oxygenation…levels at the three intensities were significantly different (p < 0.01). A significant different was also found between the rate of decrease in total hemoglobin and myoglobin at 30% of MVC and that at 70% of MVC (p < 0.01). Integrated electromyography was positively correlated with muscle oxygenation level (r = -0.641, p < 0.0001). These results suggested that muscle oxygenation level during isometric contraction reflects muscle force and muscle activity.
Abstract: Measurement of grip and pinch strength is an important component in hand evaluation. It assesses the patient's initial limitations and provides a quick reassessment of patient's progress throughout the treatment. This investigation was conducted to examine the effects of hand dominance, body mass index (BMI) and age on grip strength (GS) and pinch strength (PS) tasks. Subjects were 365 apparently healthy young male adults (19–33 years). No correlation was found between the BMI hand strength measures.…Grip and pinch strength were measured instrumentally. The rule "dominant hand (DH) is approximately 10% stronger than the nondominant hand (NDH)" was found to be valid for left handed persons only (11.2%), otherwise these measures should be considered equivalent in both hands in clinical practice.
Abstract: The objective of this study was twofold: to explore the effect of RA on hand grip strength at early stage of diagnosed RA and to support the application of isokinetic evaluation in the assessment of RA. Twenty women, age 48 ± 5 years, participated in this study: 10 with early stage RA and 10 healthy controls. The evaluation tests were included the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), Moberg pick up test, range of motion (ROM) of the wrist, grip strength,…pinch strength, visual analogue pain scale (VAPS) and isokinetic evaluation of concentric and eccentric strength of the wrist flexor and extensor muscles. The statistical analysis showed no differences in ROM, grip and pinch strength and in the isokinetic evaluation measurements between the two groups. The HAG showed that women with early stage RA have no difficulty in performing daily activities, and there was an increase of completion time due to loss of optical control in the Moberg pick up test in both groups. In conclusion, women with early stage RA do not present with any significant impairment as indicated by the above-mentioned tests.
Keywords: functional, isokinetic, hand, evaluation, RA
Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine knee muscles absolute and relative strength and power, as well as flexor/extensor (F/E) ratios, in prepubescent male and female swimmers, during concentric isokinetic testing. Twenty boys and 20 girls, aged 10–12 years, participated in this study. Gravity corrected concentric isokinetic peak torque (strength) and average power (power) were measured by a Cybex Norm dynamometer at the angular velocities of 60, 120 and 180°/s, during unilateral…knee extensions and flexions. The relative values of strength and power were expressed per kilogram of lean body mass. Knee extensors strength and power do not differ significantly between boys and girls at the angular velocities of 60 and 120°/s. In contrast, at the higher angular velocity of 180°/s boys exerted greater values than girls (p < 0.01). With respect to the knee flexors, boys exerted greater values than girls only at the angular velocities of 120 and 180°/s (p < 0.01). When relative strength and relative power were calculated, no significant differences existed between boys and girls for both muscle groups. Moreover, the shapes of strength-velocity and power-velocity curves, as well as knee F/E ratios, were similar for both groups.
Abstract: Changes in the isokinetic moment curve of the knee flexors have been proposed to be associated with functional instability in anterior cruciate ligament deficient (ACLD) patients. The purpose of this study was to assess if this relationship exists between breaks in the knee flexor moment curve and functional instability in an ACLD patient population. The study involved two groups: an asymptomatic control group (n=20) and a second experimental group (n=20) diagnosed as having an anterior…cruciate ligament rupture. Both groups underwent isokinetic strength assessment of the knee flexors, with the moment curves being inspected for irregularities or breaks. All subjects also completed Lysholm and Tegner questionnaires and had a standardized assessment using the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) form. The findings of the questionnaires were then correlated with presence of breaks in the torque curve to assess association between these factors. Breaks in the knee flexor moment curve were established to occur in some patients with ACL deficiency; these patients also had lower scores on a variety of functional indices. Further investigation would appear to be warranted on a larger population to establish if the presence of break phenomena in knee flexor torque curves can be used to identify those patients who can and cannot cope with ACL deficiency.