International Journal of Developmental Science - Volume 9, issue 2
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Individual human development is influenced by a multitude of systems, ranging from cultural processes, genetic and physiological incidents up to social interactions. How do these systems cooperate and interact during the course of human development? One of the main goals of Developmental Science is finding an answer to this question.
Since it exceeds the means of researchers from individual scientific disciplines to investigate the simultaneous biopsychosocial changes of systems and how they jointly contribute to the social and adaptive functions of human individuals, a new scientific approach is necessary that links the various traditional scientific disciplines under a biopsychosocial approach to describe individual human development: Developmental Science.
Developmental Science combines concepts and insights from scientific disciplines which hitherto used to independently tackle the research of human and non-human development. As an interdisciplinary approach it examines individuals across the lifespan with the objective of comprehending the development of individuals with different cultural and ethnic as well as biological background, different economic and cognitive potentials and under diverse living conditions. To facilitate the understanding of developmental processes it is also necessary to overcome the disadvantageous separation of “normal” from “abnormal” human development. Thus, the interdisciplinary field of Developmental Science comprises a holistic approach to understanding how different systems interact and influence development throughout life from genetic and physiological processes to social interactions and cultural processes.
International Journal of Developmental Science is especially devoted to research from the fields of Psychology, Genetics, Neuroscience and Biology and provides an interdisciplinary and international forum for basic research and professional application in the field of Developmental Science. The reader will find original empirical or theoretical contributions, methodological and review papers, giving a systematic overview or evaluation of research and theories of Developmental Science and dealing with typical human development and developmental psychopathology during infancy, childhood, adolescence and adulthood. All manuscripts pass through a multilevel peer-review process.
In 2007-2010 (Vol. 1-4) this journal was named
European Journal of Developmental Science. In 2011 its name was changed to
International Journal of Developmental Science.
Abstract: In order to reap the social gratifications of Online Social Networks (OSNs), users often disclose self-related information, making them potentially vulnerable to their online audiences. We give a brief overview of our theoretical ideas and empirical research about additional cognitive and metacognitive factors relevant for the perception of risk when self-disclosing information in OSNs. More specifically, we discuss disclosure-related knowledge and metacognitive accuracy and describe three studies in which we investigated if OSN users knew what contents they had disclosed, to which audiences these were accessible, and if users were aware of the extent of their own knowledge…(metacognitive accuracy). We found that OSN users remembered their disclosed contents well but struggled to remember specific audiences. Additionally, they were hardly aware of these knowledge differences.
Keywords: Self-disclosure, privacy, Online Social Networks, knowledge, metacognitive accuracy
Abstract: Although recent research demonstrates that people deem a considerable number of their Facebook friends dispensable, they nevertheless refrain from deleting a large number of contacts. While there are first studies on the reasons why users decide to “unfriend” contacts, there is no research on the motives for keeping social contacts even though they are identified as deletable. Based on assumptions of the need to belong theory (Baumeister & Leary, 1995 ), we conducted two exploratory studies (an interview study, N = 18, and a subsequent online survey, N = 255) to determine reasons for refraining from deleting dispensable contacts. A think-aloud element…in the interviews confirmed that participants were willing and able to identify dispensable contacts but that only a minor proportion of these were actually deleted. Reasons for not deleting were related first and foremost to the relationship and the fear of eventually losing the possibility for contact. The online survey demonstrated that the individual need to belong predicts the number of friends but not the number of friends that have already been deleted.
Keywords: Need to belong, unfriending, social networking sites, social media, mixed methods
Abstract: Twenty-four parents, mothers or fathers, of 3–5 year old children in a pre-school nursery kept diaries of problematic encounters within the family. Two of these encounters were later presented as ‘pretend’ stories to that child who made judgments of and emotionally reacted as if he/she were the story actor including giving reasons for complying. Encounters were coded into different domains (moral, social-conventional, prudential, etc.), and children’s reactions compared across domains within each pair of encounters. Instead of the standard “right”/”wrong” question, the children were asked why they would/wouldn’t commit the transgression again. All children said that they wouldn’t…do it again, but their reasons were more often congruent or consistent with the nature of prudential than of other kinds of transgressions, especially than moral transgressions. This suggests that while children may know “right from wrong,” they do not see it as relevant to their moral behavior.
Keywords: Moral development, early childhood, every-day transgressions, parental diary, affective and cognitive reactions
Abstract: Executive function is best measured in loosely structured, multi-component tasks that reflect real-life demands. These tasks require participants to develop a strategy, keep a plan in mind and monitor time. Errors include ignoring stated goals (‘goal neglect’), over-allocation of time to one task and violating rules. Teasing apart such errors can be complicated and these assessments can be difficult to control and time-consuming to administer. This paper reports an evaluation of a new, easy-to-administer computer-based multiple component test, the Computerised Multiple Elements Test (CMET). In Study 1 20 older adults (55–70 years) completed the task under different conditions. Study 2…examines the relationships between CMET and performance on measures of related constructs. The results show that poor CMET performance correlated with self-reported frequency of everyday cognitive lapses. There is a reasonable basis for further exploration of the CMET as a quick, practical and potentially sensitive measure of organisational skills.
Abstract: This study introduces the new Rotated Colour Cube Test (RCCT) as a measure of object identification and mental rotation using single 3D colour cube images in a matching-to-sample procedure. One hundred 7- to 11-year-old children were tested with aligned or rotated cube models, distracters and targets. While different orientations of distracters made the RCCT more difficult, different colours of distracters had the opposite effect and made the RCCT easier because colour facilitated clearer discrimination between target and distracters. Ten-year-olds performed significantly better than 7- to 8-year-olds. The RCCT significantly correlated with children’s performance on the Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices Test…(RCPM) presumably due to the shared multiple-choice format, but the RCCT was easier, as it did not require sequencing. Children from families with a high socio-economic status performed best on both tests, with boys outperforming girls on the more difficult RCCT test sections.
Keywords: Development of mental rotation, perceptual matching, 3D, task difficulty, colour salience, measurement