International Journal of Developmental Science - Volume 6, issue 3-4
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Individual human development is influenced by a multitude of systems, ranging from cultural processes, genetic and physiological incidents up to social interactions. How do these systems cooperate and interact during the course of human development? One of the main goals of Developmental Science is finding an answer to this question.
Since it exceeds the means of researchers from individual scientific disciplines to investigate the simultaneous biopsychosocial changes of systems and how they jointly contribute to the social and adaptive functions of human individuals, a new scientific approach is necessary that links the various traditional scientific disciplines under a biopsychosocial approach to describe individual human development: Developmental Science.
Developmental Science combines concepts and insights from scientific disciplines which hitherto used to independently tackle the research of human and non-human development. As an interdisciplinary approach it examines individuals across the lifespan with the objective of comprehending the development of individuals with different cultural and ethnic as well as biological background, different economic and cognitive potentials and under diverse living conditions. To facilitate the understanding of developmental processes it is also necessary to overcome the disadvantageous separation of “normal” from “abnormal” human development. Thus, the interdisciplinary field of Developmental Science comprises a holistic approach to understanding how different systems interact and influence development throughout life from genetic and physiological processes to social interactions and cultural processes.
International Journal of Developmental Science is especially devoted to research from the fields of Psychology, Genetics, Neuroscience and Biology and provides an interdisciplinary and international forum for basic research and professional application in the field of Developmental Science. The reader will find original empirical or theoretical contributions, methodological and review papers, giving a systematic overview or evaluation of research and theories of Developmental Science and dealing with typical human development and developmental psychopathology during infancy, childhood, adolescence and adulthood. All manuscripts pass through a multilevel peer-review process.
In 2007-2010 (Vol. 1-4) this journal was named
European Journal of Developmental Science. In 2011 its name was changed to
International Journal of Developmental Science.
Abstract: Will significant numbers of today's youth become able to succeed in careers that require entrepreneurial capacities? Who among today's youth will have the talent, skills, knowledge, and drive needed to become successful entrepreneurs? To answer these questions, it will be necessary understand the developmental bases of individual and ecological variables linked to successful entrepreneurship and their interrelations over the course of the first decades of life. Accordingly, we use a relational developmental systems approach as a lens to examine what is currently known about the development of entrepreneurship during adolescence. We present an approach to understanding the mutually influential relations…between youth and contexts that eventuate in the development of entrepreneurship capacities during this period of life. We also examine how the evidence from such research could inform the design of innovative educational programs that promote interest and skill in entrepreneurship among youth.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship, adolescence, relational developmental systems theory, longitudinal designs
Abstract: To identify specific genetic variants influencing the phenotype of entrepreneurship, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 3,933 Caucasian females from the TwinsUK Adult Twin Registry. Following stringent genotype quality control, GWAF (genome-wide association analyses for family data) software was used to assess the association between each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and entrepreneurship. The most promising genetic variant (rs10791283 of the OPCML gene on chromosome 11q25) was significant at the 6 × 10–7 level. Suggestive associations with entrepreneurship were also identified with variants of KIAA1199, SYT13 and PARD3B. Of the top 30 SNPs, 13 (43%) were located on…chromosome 11, 7 (23%) on chromosome 14, and 5 (17%) on chromosome 15. However, the effect of each SNP was small, accounting for less than 1% of the variance. Our results suggest that the effects of individual common risk variants on entrepreneurship are probably very small and very large sample sizes are required to identify variants that reach genome-wide significance.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship, genome-wide association study (GWAS), genetics
Abstract: Contributing to the literature on early precursors of entrepreneurship, this study investigated the role of early social competencies for an entrepreneurial career choice and entrepreneurial success in young adulthood. We utilized data from the British Cohort Study and the Thuringian Founder Study (Germany), thereby comparing results across countries, study designs (e.g., retrospective vs. prospective), and concepts of early social competencies and entrepreneurship. In the British analyses, which concentrated on self-employment among the creative class, we found that social competencies in childhood (i.e., social skills and peer popularity at age 10) predicted entrepreneurial status at age 34, continuity in entrepreneurial activity…(age 30 and 34) as well as earnings among the self-employed (age 34). In the German data, we found that entrepreneurial forms of social competencies in adolescence (i.e., leadership and early commercialization activities at age 14 or 15) predicted the process of starting an innovative business in young adulthood (entrepreneurial intentions, progress in the venture creation process, and business success in the post-startup phase). The results are discussed with an emphasis on possible pathways connecting early social competencies and enterprising behavior in young adulthood.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship, social competencies, social skills, childhood, adolescence
Abstract: Why some individuals choose to become business owners is not entirely clear. Some scholars have argued that a more holistic approach that includes examining personality traits, social context, and developmental periods in the lifespan should provide a deeper understanding of these choices. Tracing the relationship between adolescents' entrepreneurship orientation and their educational aspirations, school engagement, and conformity when in secondary school, can contribute new insights into the pathways of business ownership. Results from a series of structural equation models, with a constructed latent variable of school attachment, using a national longitudinal study of over 9,000 U.S. adolescents and their subsequent…career choices in their late 20 s, reveal a pattern of entrepreneurial development. Business owners, even as adolescents, showed a strong entrepreneurship orientation but lacked an attachment to school. This career trajectory, however, differed for females and males.
Keywords: entrepreneurship orientation, business ownership, adolescence, school attachment
Abstract: Drawing on representative household data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, we examine the role of an early precursor of entrepreneurial development – parental role models – for the individual decision to become self-employed in the post-unified Germany. The findings suggest that the socialist regime significantly damaged this mechanism of an intergenerational transmission of entrepreneurial attitudes among East Germans with a tertiary degree that have experienced a particularly strong ideological indoctrination. However, we find a significant and positive relationship between the presence of a parental role model and the decision to become self-employed for less-educated people. For West Germans the positive…relationship holds irrespective of the level of education.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship, parental role models, human capital, political regime switch, East Germany
Abstract: Longitudinal studies of entrepreneurial career development are rare, and current knowledge of self-employment patterns and their relationships with individual difference characteristics is limited. In this study, the authors analyzed employment data from a subsample of 514 participants from the German Socio-Economic Panel study (1984–2008). Results of an optimal matching analysis indicated that a continuous self-employment pattern could be distinguished from four alternative employment patterns (change from employment to self-employment, full-time employees, part-time employees, and farmers). Results of a multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that certain socio-demographic characteristics (i.e., age and gender) and personality characteristics (i.e., conscientiousness and risk-taking propensity) were…related to the likelihood of following a continuous self-employment pattern compared to the other employment patterns. Implications for future research on entrepreneurial career development are discussed.
Abstract: We evaluated whether gossip between best friends moderated the relation between anxious withdrawal and friendship quality in early adolescence, using an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM, Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006) approach. Participants (n = 256) were 5th and 6th grade young adolescents (actors) and their best friends (partners). Observed gossip between best friends moderated the association between anxious withdrawal and young adolescent' perceptions of friendship quality. When gossip between best friends was infrequent, the greater the anxious withdrawal the lower the perceived positive friendship quality, but this relation disappeared when gossip between best friends was of moderate or high frequency.…Further, when gossip between best friends was infrequent, the greater the anxious withdrawal the lower the perceived friendship conflict; but when gossip was frequent, the greater the anxious withdrawal the greater the friendship conflict. Results suggest that gossip may have both positive and negative consequences for the friendships, when taking into consideration the level of anxious withdrawal of the young adolescents involved in the friendship.
Keywords: Gossip, anxious withdrawal, friendship, early adolescence