International Journal of Developmental Science - Volume 2, issue 4
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Individual human development is influenced by a multitude of systems, ranging from cultural processes, genetic and physiological incidents up to social interactions. How do these systems cooperate and interact during the course of human development? One of the main goals of Developmental Science is finding an answer to this question.
Since it exceeds the means of researchers from individual scientific disciplines to investigate the simultaneous biopsychosocial changes of systems and how they jointly contribute to the social and adaptive functions of human individuals, a new scientific approach is necessary that links the various traditional scientific disciplines under a biopsychosocial approach to describe individual human development: Developmental Science.
Developmental Science combines concepts and insights from scientific disciplines which hitherto used to independently tackle the research of human and non-human development. As an interdisciplinary approach it examines individuals across the lifespan with the objective of comprehending the development of individuals with different cultural and ethnic as well as biological background, different economic and cognitive potentials and under diverse living conditions. To facilitate the understanding of developmental processes it is also necessary to overcome the disadvantageous separation of “normal” from “abnormal” human development. Thus, the interdisciplinary field of Developmental Science comprises a holistic approach to understanding how different systems interact and influence development throughout life from genetic and physiological processes to social interactions and cultural processes.
International Journal of Developmental Science is especially devoted to research from the fields of Psychology, Genetics, Neuroscience and Biology and provides an interdisciplinary and international forum for basic research and professional application in the field of Developmental Science. The reader will find original empirical or theoretical contributions, methodological and review papers, giving a systematic overview or evaluation of research and theories of Developmental Science and dealing with typical human development and developmental psychopathology during infancy, childhood, adolescence and adulthood. All manuscripts pass through a multilevel peer-review process.
In 2007-2010 (Vol. 1-4) this journal was named
European Journal of Developmental Science. In 2011 its name was changed to
International Journal of Developmental Science.
Abstract: Physical changes that occur during puberty alter the body image. Girls formerly had more difficulties accepting physical changes than boys. In this longitudinal study (three family visits; time interval: 1 year), pubertal development, body satisfaction, and desired body changes of 106 boys and 108 girls were assessed. The adolescents were between 10 and 12 years of age at the time of the first visit. We examined whether—with progressing pubertal development—a stronger increase in body dissatisfaction could still be found for girls than for boys. This was questioned because of the changing male ideal of beauty. Results show that girls are…still more often dissatisfied with their bodies and that their body satisfaction even decreases significantly over time. Only by the time of the second interview did gender differences in desired body changes become significant, showing that boys and girls both have certain idealistic visions of how they would like to look. These ideals seem to be more fed by peer-group comparisons than by comparing oneself to the existing ideals of beauty. Nevertheless, girls are still more negatively affected by societal norms than boys. For girls alone, pubertal status predicts body satisfaction and the wish for bodily changes. For boys, other predictors seem to be crucial.
Keywords: puberty, body image, body satisfaction, body changes, adolescence
Abstract: Grouping by luminance and shape similarity has previously been demonstrated in neonates and at 4 months, respectively. By contrast, grouping by proximity has hitherto not been investigated in infancy. This is also the first study to chart the developmental emergence of perceptual grouping longitudinally. Sixty-one infants were presented with a matrix of local stimuli grouped horizontally or vertically by luminance, shape or proximity at 2, 4, and 6 months. Infants were exposed to each set of stimuli for three presentation durations. Grouping was demonstrated for luminance similarity at the earliest testing age, 2 months, by shape similarity at 4 months,…but was not observed for grouping by proximity. Grouping by shape similarity showed a distinctive pattern of grouping ability across exposure durations, which reflected familiarity preferences followed by novelty preferences. This remained stable across age. No link was found between the emergence of perceptual grouping ability and the exposure duration required to elicit grouping. We conclude by stressing the importance of longitudinal studies of infant development in furthering our understanding of human cognition, rather than relying on assumptions from the adult endstate.
Abstract: The A-not-B task is a marker task for infant development where an infant searches for an object being hidden twice, in two consecutive places. In two studies N = 70 infants plus 40 controls were tested in this task using two separate, infant-sized tables. In the first study, the separate tables were joined in front of the infant to form one area. No facilitation effect occurred. In the second study, an air gap was left between tables which facilitated search, but no learning transfer occurred. Results are discussed on the background of object-place binding theory (Treisman, 2006a, b): Initially object-place…binding is taking place, which then needs to be dissociated, if the object must be bound to a new, second place. Thus infants need to switch from an object priority to a place priority. An object and place association-dissociation-association binding model (ADA) of spatial learning integrates object-based (object permanence) with space-based accounts of the A-not-B task
Abstract: Long-term effects of victimization were investigated in 177 girls and boys that were followed from adolescence (ages 14-15) to young adulthood (ages 22-23). Victimization in adolescence was associated with increases in depression and decreases in self-esteem as well as negative views of others in young adulthood, but only when adolescents lacked a supportive family environment. Results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms responsible for the critical role that family support plays in altering maladjustment consequences of victimization by peers.