International Journal of Developmental Science - Volume 16, issue 1-2
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Individual human development is influenced by a multitude of systems, ranging from cultural processes, genetic and physiological incidents up to social interactions. How do these systems cooperate and interact during the course of human development? One of the main goals of Developmental Science is finding an answer to this question.
Since it exceeds the means of researchers from individual scientific disciplines to investigate the simultaneous biopsychosocial changes of systems and how they jointly contribute to the social and adaptive functions of human individuals, a new scientific approach is necessary that links the various traditional scientific disciplines under a biopsychosocial approach to describe individual human development: Developmental Science.
Developmental Science combines concepts and insights from scientific disciplines which hitherto used to independently tackle the research of human and non-human development. As an interdisciplinary approach it examines individuals across the lifespan with the objective of comprehending the development of individuals with different cultural and ethnic as well as biological background, different economic and cognitive potentials and under diverse living conditions. To facilitate the understanding of developmental processes it is also necessary to overcome the disadvantageous separation of “normal” from “abnormal” human development. Thus, the interdisciplinary field of Developmental Science comprises a holistic approach to understanding how different systems interact and influence development throughout life from genetic and physiological processes to social interactions and cultural processes.
International Journal of Developmental Science is especially devoted to research from the fields of Psychology, Genetics, Neuroscience and Biology and provides an interdisciplinary and international forum for basic research and professional application in the field of Developmental Science. The reader will find original empirical or theoretical contributions, methodological and review papers, giving a systematic overview or evaluation of research and theories of Developmental Science and dealing with typical human development and developmental psychopathology during infancy, childhood, adolescence and adulthood. All manuscripts pass through a multilevel peer-review process.
In 2007-2010 (Vol. 1-4) this journal was named
European Journal of Developmental Science. In 2011 its name was changed to
International Journal of Developmental Science.
Abstract: Most research on developmental prevention programs stems from Anglo-American countries. However, in German-speaking European countries, there is also a broad range of family-oriented programs to promote child development and prevent behavioral problems. This article presents a meta-analysis of n = 79 studies on family-based prevention that had a comparison group and were performed in Germany, Austria, or Switzerland. Overall, the data contained 10,667 parents and showed a significant positive mean effect of the programs (d = 0.31). The mean effect for parent related outcomes (d = 0.40) was larger than for measures of child behavior (d = 0.20). There was much heterogeneity across studies…and very few had follow-ups of more than one year. Moderator analyses revealed particular influences of methodological study characteristics, e.g. larger effects in smaller samples and less well-controlled studies. Most results of our meta-analysis are similar to what has been found in the English-speaking world. However, as in international practice, the evaluated programs seem to be not representative for everyday prevention reality where many programs are not evaluated at all. Our study confirms the need for more high-quality and long-term evaluation as well as cross-national comparisons and replicated moderator analyses.
Abstract: This study examined the new parent-report assessment’s reliability and validity, the Eyuboglu Sensory Reactivity Scale (ESRS), in children with ASD. The ESRS was designed to assess the frequency of sensory behaviors in children with ASD. A total of 167 (age 2–18, M = 6.4±4.1 years, 79.6 % male) children and their families were included. Parents were asked to fill in the ESRS and the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). In addition, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) was administered by the clinician. The psychometric properties were examined through reliability and validity analyses. According to explorative factor analysis, the ESRS consists of a…15 five-point Likert-type that has acceptable internal consistency and good validity for children aged 2 through 18. Cronbach’s alpha of the scale was 0.85. The scale also showed good concurrent and convergent validity. The ESRS has the potential to measure unusual sensory reactions and can be used to follow up sensory interventions in children with ASD.
Abstract: The Assessment of Language in Adults using Self-reported Skills (ALASS) is an online tool aimed at providing a rapid indication of language-related skills at two levels: basic performance and social use. In Study 1, we have developed and validated a new tool with two objective measures: a lexical decision test and a grammaticality judgement test, completed online by 280 participants (204 women, 69 men, 7 undisclosed, age: M = 24.4 years; SD = 11.1). Results show that ALASS is a good predictor of the outcomes for reaction times in the objective measures. In study 2, we have run further analyses with a subset…of 209 adults (157 women, 47 men, 5 undisclosed; age: M = 20.9 years; SD = 5.8) to validate the social implications of ALASS with another online study, also showing a considerable explanatory power in this case, and strengthening the divergent nature of language when it is used with a social purpose against a more cognitive function (i.e. literacy and language production and comprehension). Considering its explanatory power for lexical performance, we believe that the scale has a potential applicability in the assessment of adults that could have missed a diagnosis of Developmental Language Disorder during childhood.
Keywords: Language assessment, adults, developmental language disorder, lexical decision task
Abstract: Adults, preschool children, and infants gesture more with their right hand than with their left hand. Since gestures and speech are related in production, it is possible that this right-hand preference reflects left-hemisphere lateralization for gestures and speech. The primary purpose of the present study was to test if children between the ages of 6 and 10 years show a right-hand preference in referential gestures while telling a story. We also tested four predictors of children’s degree of right-hand preference: 1) bilingualism, 2) language proficiency, 3) age, and 4) sex. Previous studies have shown that these variables are related to…the degree of speech lateralization. Twenty-five English monolingual (17 girls; Mage = 8.0, SDage = 1.4), 21 French monolingual (12 girls; Mage = 7.3, SDage = 1.4,) and 25 French-English bilingual (11 girls; Mage = 8.5, SDage = 1.4) children watched a cartoon and told the story back. The bilinguals did this once in each language. The referential gestures were coded for handedness. Most of the participants showed a right-hand preference for gesturing. In English, none of the predictor variables was clearly related to right-hand preference. In French, the monolinguals showed a stronger right-hand preference than the bilinguals. These inconsistent findings across languages raise doubts as to whether the right-hand preference is linked to lateralization for speech.
Keywords: Hand preference, lateralization, co-speech gestures, referential gestures