International Journal of Developmental Science - Volume 14, issue 1-2
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Individual human development is influenced by a multitude of systems, ranging from cultural processes, genetic and physiological incidents up to social interactions. How do these systems cooperate and interact during the course of human development? One of the main goals of Developmental Science is finding an answer to this question.
Since it exceeds the means of researchers from individual scientific disciplines to investigate the simultaneous biopsychosocial changes of systems and how they jointly contribute to the social and adaptive functions of human individuals, a new scientific approach is necessary that links the various traditional scientific disciplines under a biopsychosocial approach to describe individual human development: Developmental Science.
Developmental Science combines concepts and insights from scientific disciplines which hitherto used to independently tackle the research of human and non-human development. As an interdisciplinary approach it examines individuals across the lifespan with the objective of comprehending the development of individuals with different cultural and ethnic as well as biological background, different economic and cognitive potentials and under diverse living conditions. To facilitate the understanding of developmental processes it is also necessary to overcome the disadvantageous separation of “normal” from “abnormal” human development. Thus, the interdisciplinary field of Developmental Science comprises a holistic approach to understanding how different systems interact and influence development throughout life from genetic and physiological processes to social interactions and cultural processes.
International Journal of Developmental Science is especially devoted to research from the fields of Psychology, Genetics, Neuroscience and Biology and provides an interdisciplinary and international forum for basic research and professional application in the field of Developmental Science. The reader will find original empirical or theoretical contributions, methodological and review papers, giving a systematic overview or evaluation of research and theories of Developmental Science and dealing with typical human development and developmental psychopathology during infancy, childhood, adolescence and adulthood. All manuscripts pass through a multilevel peer-review process.
In 2007-2010 (Vol. 1-4) this journal was named
European Journal of Developmental Science. In 2011 its name was changed to
International Journal of Developmental Science.
Abstract: The experiment analyzed reactions of 115 first- to fourth-graders after realizing that they performed worse than they expected in a computer game. Based on the VIOLEX model of expectation violation, we assessed immunization against achievement feedback, assimilation (striving to increase performance), and accommodation (willingness for expectation change). Students decreased their expectations for the next round of the game after getting feedback indicating that they performed worse than expected, and younger students decreased their expectation more than older students did. After giving them some time for thinking about their achievement (and for finding potential excuses for the lower-than-expected performance), younger students…slightly increased their expectation, while older students showed a further drop in expectation. Analyses of verbal responses showed that immunizing against the discrepant feedback was followed by an increase in expectations, whereas assimilative and accommodative tendencies did not predict persistence and change in expectations. Conclusions are drawn for future research.
Abstract: Smartphone addiction among adolescents has become a major concern. The present study aims to investigate the psychometric properties of the Persian Smartphone Addiction Scale – Short Version (SAS-SV). A sample of 398 adolescents (52% girls and 48% boys) completed the SAS-SV, the Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale (KADS), and the Young Internet Addiction Test (IAT). Factor analysis showed that the Persian SAS-SV consisted of one factor and is a reliable (Cronbach’s α = 0.82) and valid (CFA model fit: RMSEA = 0.7, CFI = .95, AGFI = .92) measure. Strong correlations with depressive symptoms (r = 0.41) and internet addiction scores (r = 0.57) were also found. A high prevalence…of smartphone addiction in adolescents and the correlation with depression and internet addiction signals that more attention should be given to this issue. The Persian SAS-SV is a valid and reliable scale to be used for Persian speaking samples.
Keywords: Smartphone addiction, internet addiction, adolescence, measurement, Persian SAS-SV
Abstract: This research paper presents an operationalization procedure for measuring fidelity of implementation (FOI) of a school-based crisis prevention program. The implementation literature recommends that program developers specify core components of an intervention that are directly related to a program’s theory of change and need to be implemented with high FOI. This approach allows stakeholders some flexibility to adapt a program to individual circumstances yet helps assure that the intended outcomes are achieved. We trained 3,473 school staff in 98 German schools in the NETWorks Against School Shootings (NETWASS) program. Following the CORE cycle, we conceptualized 12 core components and operationalized…relevant FOI dimensions of dosage, quality, adherence. and responsiveness. FOI was measured ex post facto, i.e after program implementation was completed, and separately for three distinct stages of implementation. Finally, we identified theoretical cut-offs for high fidelity on 15 measures using 91 items derived from an existing data set. Results indicate a high FOI across all schools for the dimensions of dosage and quality. Regarding responsiveness, high FOI was found for intervention compliance at t1 and program acceptance at the follow-up. Participant engagement during the trainings was measured separately and remained below our threshold. Adherence to 10 out of 12 core components was high. After training, school staff reported sufficient theoretical knowledge and were sensitized to recognize students in trouble, but actual case evaluation skills left room for improvement.The resulting FOI Assessment System requires validation by empirical research. Multi-level statistical modelling is necessary to test the hyothesized relationships between FOI per stage and outcomes, and obtain empirical validation of the hypothesized core components. Despite the methodological weaknesses of applying the CORE cycle ex post facto, it seems to be a feasible strategy to assess dimensions of FOI.
Keywords: Fidelity, core components, implementation, NETWASS, school violence