International Journal of Developmental Science - Volume 11, issue 3-4
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Individual human development is influenced by a multitude of systems, ranging from cultural processes, genetic and physiological incidents up to social interactions. How do these systems cooperate and interact during the course of human development? One of the main goals of Developmental Science is finding an answer to this question.
Since it exceeds the means of researchers from individual scientific disciplines to investigate the simultaneous biopsychosocial changes of systems and how they jointly contribute to the social and adaptive functions of human individuals, a new scientific approach is necessary that links the various traditional scientific disciplines under a biopsychosocial approach to describe individual human development: Developmental Science.
Developmental Science combines concepts and insights from scientific disciplines which hitherto used to independently tackle the research of human and non-human development. As an interdisciplinary approach it examines individuals across the lifespan with the objective of comprehending the development of individuals with different cultural and ethnic as well as biological background, different economic and cognitive potentials and under diverse living conditions. To facilitate the understanding of developmental processes it is also necessary to overcome the disadvantageous separation of “normal” from “abnormal” human development. Thus, the interdisciplinary field of Developmental Science comprises a holistic approach to understanding how different systems interact and influence development throughout life from genetic and physiological processes to social interactions and cultural processes.
International Journal of Developmental Science is especially devoted to research from the fields of Psychology, Genetics, Neuroscience and Biology and provides an interdisciplinary and international forum for basic research and professional application in the field of Developmental Science. The reader will find original empirical or theoretical contributions, methodological and review papers, giving a systematic overview or evaluation of research and theories of Developmental Science and dealing with typical human development and developmental psychopathology during infancy, childhood, adolescence and adulthood. All manuscripts pass through a multilevel peer-review process.
In 2007-2010 (Vol. 1-4) this journal was named
European Journal of Developmental Science. In 2011 its name was changed to
International Journal of Developmental Science.
Abstract: Empathy entails basic cognitive processes such as the recognition of facial expressions and basic emotional processes such as emotional contagion, but also higher-order cognitive processes such as abstract reasoning about the other person’s emotional states and higher-order emotional processes such as empathic concern. Thus, empathy must be conceptualized as a multidimensional and multifaceted construct. It can be differentiated from related constructs such as theory of mind, emotional contagion, compassion, emotional mimicry, or perspective-taking by its associated processes and functions. To understand the nature of empathy, it is important to combine phylogenetic, ontogenetic, neuroscientific, dynamic-interactionist, and sociological perspectives on this phenomenon.
Keywords: Empathy, theory of mind, emotional contagion, emotional development
Abstract: The “5 Cs of PYD Model” is an influential theory involving the role of Intentional Self-Regulation (ISR) in positive youth development (PYD). The model, which was developed with U.S. populations, has recently been used in other cultural contexts and, as such, the measurement invariance of the ISR-PYD model across cultural contexts must be assessed. This study examined whether the ISR-PYD model is conceptually similar across two cultures, the U.S. and Iceland. Participants were 2,473 U.S. and 539 Icelandic adolescents (65% female, 15.00 years; 46% female, 14.30 years, respectively). Results suggested weak invariance and partial strong invariance for PYD and partial…weak invariance across groups and time for ISR. Bifactor modeling showed that ISR was more strongly associated with global PYD than individual Cs. These findings demonstrate construct validity of the ISR-PYD model, suggesting that ISR is a central asset in general healthy functioning among youth in different Western cultural contexts.
Keywords: Intentional self-regulation, positive youth development, adolescence, cultural contexts, validity
Abstract: Decisional bias (false alarm rate) when judging the guilt/innocence of a suspect is offered as an implicit measure of moral judgment. Combining two data sets, 215 participants, ages 10–12, 13–15, and 16–18 watched the visually identical film involving a person setting a fire, framed either as (a) intentional but not resulting in a fire (BI-NF), (b) unintentional but resulting in a major fire (NI-F), or (c) intentional and resulting in a major fire (BI-F). After watching the film, participants identified seriatim who of six individuals was the perpetrator and how certain they were. The data were subjected to a…signal detection analysis . Participants also explicitly judged “how bad” the perpetrator and act were. The implicit measure fit Piaget’s claim of moral realism , shifting from judging wrongness according to the outcome to judging according to the actor’s intentions, better than the explicit traditional measures.
Keywords: Eyewitness identification, moral judgment, decision-making
Abstract: Until recently, there were four sources of large-scale self-report survey data on victim rates, cross-nationally: EU Kids Online, Global School Health Survey, Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, and Health Behaviour of School-aged Children. Smith, Robinson, and Marchi (2016) examined the internal validity and external validity of these data sets, comparing country victimization rates. While internal validity correlations were high, external validity correlations ranged from moderate to zero, raising concerns about using these cross-national data sets to make judgements about which countries are higher or lower in victim rates. Another cross-national source of victim rates was released by…PISA in 2016, and here we compare this PISA data with the earlier data sets, and the most recent data sets from HBSC and TIMSS. Correlations obtained were generally more acceptable than in the previous comparisons, and especially satisfactory for comparing PISA with TIMSS. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Abstract: The ViSC program is the first evidence based anti-bullying program implemented in Turkey. A quasi-experimental longitudinal control group design comprising six schools and 26 classes was realized to examine the program effectiveness regarding different forms of perpetration and victimization. The effectiveness of two dosages of interventions – school and class level vs. school level – was investigated. In total, 642 grade 5 students (227 in school and class level, 201 in school level, 214 in control group, 49% girls, Mage = 10.06) participated. Multilevel growth models revealed baseline effects indicating that the two intervention groups had lower levels of…perpetration and victimization at pre-test than the controls. Perpetration and victimization increased in the two intervention groups compared to control group between pre- and post-test, but also decreased between post-test and follow-up indicating a sensitizing effect of the program. Results are important for both intervention research and social policy in Turkey.
Abstract: The present study investigates frequency rates of sexting, and examines the associations of sexting with self-control and self-esteem as psychological correlates. The study sample included 1,818 adolescents between 12 and 17 years (M age = 14.3, SD = 1.4) from Germany, the Netherlands, and Thailand. Across the three countries, the frequency rate for sending sexts was 8%, suggesting that sexting among adolescents is neither an epidemic nor a rarity. Both increasing self-esteem and increasing self-control decreased the likelihood of sending sexts. Additionally, self-esteem partially mediated the associations between self-control and sending of sexts and self-control partially mediated the associations between self-esteem and…sending of sexts. The results indicated that education training should focus on increasing awareness of the potential challenges adolescents may face when engaged in sexting but also on intervention programs that enable adolescents to control their ICT-related behavior and empowerment training to build a positive self-view.
Keywords: Sexting, adolescents, self-control, self-esteem, social media, cross-national comparison
Abstract: The present study investigated the associations between bullying perpetration and victimization and physiological reactivity to social exclusion. The participants were 28 early adolescents (17 boys and 11 girls; M age = 11.55; SD = 1.34). Bullying perpetration and victimization were assessed by peer nominations. To elicit social exclusion, participants were first included and then excluded in a laboratory paradigm (Cyberball). Physiological reactivity (i.e., nose tip temperature) was detected through thermal infrared imaging during the computer simulation. Nose temperature variations during inclusion and exclusion were compared between each other. Results showed increasing skin temperature during exclusion, compared to inclusion, for the whole sample,…indicating that being excluded affected physiological reactivity. However, victimization was associated with higher skin temperature during exclusion, compared to bullying. The present findings suggest the importance of combining behavioral and contact-free physiological measures when studying bullying perpetration and victimization by peers.
Keywords: Bullying, victimization, physiological reactivity, social exclusion, thermal infrared imaging