International Journal of Developmental Science - Volume 1, issue 3
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Individual human development is influenced by a multitude of systems, ranging from cultural processes, genetic and physiological incidents up to social interactions. How do these systems cooperate and interact during the course of human development? One of the main goals of Developmental Science is finding an answer to this question.
Since it exceeds the means of researchers from individual scientific disciplines to investigate the simultaneous biopsychosocial changes of systems and how they jointly contribute to the social and adaptive functions of human individuals, a new scientific approach is necessary that links the various traditional scientific disciplines under a biopsychosocial approach to describe individual human development: Developmental Science.
Developmental Science combines concepts and insights from scientific disciplines which hitherto used to independently tackle the research of human and non-human development. As an interdisciplinary approach it examines individuals across the lifespan with the objective of comprehending the development of individuals with different cultural and ethnic as well as biological background, different economic and cognitive potentials and under diverse living conditions. To facilitate the understanding of developmental processes it is also necessary to overcome the disadvantageous separation of “normal” from “abnormal” human development. Thus, the interdisciplinary field of Developmental Science comprises a holistic approach to understanding how different systems interact and influence development throughout life from genetic and physiological processes to social interactions and cultural processes.
International Journal of Developmental Science is especially devoted to research from the fields of Psychology, Genetics, Neuroscience and Biology and provides an interdisciplinary and international forum for basic research and professional application in the field of Developmental Science. The reader will find original empirical or theoretical contributions, methodological and review papers, giving a systematic overview or evaluation of research and theories of Developmental Science and dealing with typical human development and developmental psychopathology during infancy, childhood, adolescence and adulthood. All manuscripts pass through a multilevel peer-review process.
In 2007-2010 (Vol. 1-4) this journal was named
European Journal of Developmental Science. In 2011 its name was changed to
International Journal of Developmental Science.
Abstract: To test the hypothesis that social rearing may induce malleability, socially reared and socially isolated mallard duck, Anas platyrhynchos, embryos and hatchlings were exposed to the maternal call of a chicken, Gallus gallus domesticus, until 48 h after hatching. The hatchlings were then tested with the chicken call versus the mallard maternal call at 48 and 65 h. Social rearing before and after hatching led to the development of a persistent preference for the maternal call of the chicken. Social isolates did not develop a preference for the chicken call. The preference for the chicken call in the socially reared…birds required both prenatal and postnatal exposure; socially reared birds exposed to the chicken call only before or only after hatching did not develop a preference for it. Social rearing overrode the usual canalizing influence of exposure to the embryo's contact call. Socially reared birds spend most of their time asleep, so there may be a reduction in contact calling and/or less exposure to visual stimulation (less intersensory competition). Malleability is the requisite first step in the behavioural pathway to evolution.
Keywords: sociogenesis, social rearing, animal behavior, social isolation, plasticity
Abstract: Gottlieb's (1991/2007) study on social malleability of ducking response to maternal calls is perhaps a paradigmatic example of research within the transactional approach to behavioral development—an approach which has fundamental links with the ecological approach to perception-action (Gibson, 1979). This commentary fleshes out these links especially as they relate to the social nature of the organism-environment system and social influences on perception-action and development.
Keywords: transactionalism, ecological psychology, perception-action, organism-environment system, social influences
Abstract: Gilbert Gottlieb's 1991/2007 paper provides a fine example of his creative, experimental approach to behavioral embryology. As this paper shows, he gave the field insight into the role of development in evolution, backed with strong empirical evidence.
Keywords: behavioral embryology, neophenogenesis, developmental systems
Abstract: Gottlieb's (1991/2007) target article represents a milestone in our understanding of the impact of social experience on developmental malleability. Interactions across the species-typical and operant behavior categories are increasingly understood to exist. The social contingencies present in the normal species-typical developmental manifold are likely powerful contributors to malleability, development, and evolution.
Keywords: malleability, developmental systems theory, operant learning, contingency, northern bobwhite
Abstract: Gilbert Gottlieb's data and epigenetic approach support the conclusion that organisms are functionally-whole agents at each phase of development rather than simply incompletely developed adults prior to sexual maturity and deteriorated adults in old age. This implies that organisms construct distinct ontogenetic niches at each phase of development, and so behave differently because they are differently adapted and not simply progressing toward or declining from their “prime.” This concept of ontogenetic adaptation has stimulated a number of insights about how the behavior of juveniles is appropriate for their phase-specific circumstances. But it also raises the challenge of discovering how organisms…navigate through the disregulation of transitions between developmental phases. The idea also has important implications for the role of developmental systems in evolution. Distinct, equally-adapted phenotypes associated with different phases of ontogeny are potential alternative adult phe-notypes. The phenomenon of neoteny, for example, illustrates this point.
Abstract: The significance of sociality for the development of species recognition surprised even Gottlieb. There is a growing interest in the role of developmental plasticity in evolution among biologists. Although still understudied, Gottlieb's view on the importance of novel behavior in evolution has recently gathered empirical support.
Keywords: imprinting, phenotypic plasticity, evolution, species recognition
Abstract: Discussed are the ontogenetic and evolutionary implications of Dr. Gottlieb's perinatal research with ducklings. His evolutionary theory which proposes that behavior is the primary engine driving evolution is reviewed as is his experimental examination of behavioral neophenotypes. The methodology and findings from Gottlieb (1991/2007) are described in the context of his evolutionary perspective. The value of Dr. Gottlieb's notions on perinatal malleability is discussed in light of recent findings from human fetal and newborn research.
Abstract: Perceptual grouping by luminance similarity and by proximity was investigated in infants with Williams syndrome (WS) aged between 6 and 36 months (visit 1, N=29). WS infants who were still under 36 months old, 8 months later, repeated the testing procedure (visit 2, N=15). Performance was compared to typically developing (TD) infants aged from 2 to 20 months (N=63). Consistent with the literature, TD participants showed grouping by luminance at the youngest testing age, 2 months. Grouping by proximity had not previous been charted in typical development: this study showed grouping by proximity at 8 months. Infants with WS could…group by luminance. Developmental progression of the WS group showed some similarities to typical development, although further investigation is required to further address this in more depth. In contrast, infants with WS were not able to group by proximity. This pattern of emergence and development of grouping abilities is considered in relation to the pattern of grouping abilities observed in adults with WS.
Abstract: Using data from Grades 5, 6, and 7 of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development (PYD), the role of intentional self-regulation in the positive development of young adolescents was examined through use of the Selection, Optimization, and Compensation (SOC) measure. Consistent with Gestsdóttir and Lerner (2007), results of confirmatory factor analyses of SOC scores suggested the use of a global, nine-item index. Results of hierarchical linear modeling indicated that statistically significant but substantively minor changes in SOC scores existed across the three grades; these findings support the use of the Grade 5 SOC scores as predictors of subsequent development.…Accordingly, Grade 5 SOC scores positively predicted Grade 7 scores on the Five Cs of PYD (i.e., competence, confidence, character, connection, and caring) and negatively predicted Grade 7 depression, delinquency, and risk behaviors. No gender effects were found in regard to changes in SOC scores. Implications for future research and for the developmental course of intentional self-regulation in adolescence are discussed.