Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume Preprint, issue Preprint
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: The focus of this paper is the determination of endothelial dysfunction in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the establishment of a relationship between the traditional biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and the vascular tone regulation indices obtained from indirect cold tests in MetS patients. Our investigation was conducted on 30 patients aged 45.5±9 years. The control group comprised 14 healthy subjects aged 48.2±2.4 years. The mechanism of vascular tone regulation was investigated using the wavelet analysis of skin temperature oscillations (WAST). The degrees of microvascular vasoconstriction and vasodilatation were determined during contralateral cold tests in the endothelial (0.02–0.0095 Hz), neurogenic (0.05–0.02 Hz)…and myogenic (0.05–0.14 Hz) frequency ranges. In MetS patients, vasoconstriction indices were higher and vasodilatation indices were lower than in the subjects of the control group, which is indicative of disorders in the mechanisms of microvascular tone regulation. These indices correlate with the metabolic parameters and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) levels. The correlation of vasoconstriction and vasodilatation indices with the main factors of the metabolic syndrome testifies that the biological and functional aspects of the endothelial dysfunction are closely related.
Keywords: Endothelial dysfunction, wavelet analysis of skin temperature oscillations, metabolic syndrome
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Tissue channels as a part of microcirculation system have been proposed over three decade, playing an important role in fluid transportation as reported. Adventitia of inferior vena cava (IVC) is a typical hierarchical porous media with abundant tissue channels. Its fluid transportation behaviors attract massive research interest. However, the mechanism of the driving force and microstructure was lack of deep research. OBJECTIVE: This study was to investigate the microstructural basis of fluid transportation within inferior vena cava (IVC). METHODS: Rat IVC samples were extracted and fixed on a gelatin substrate. Four samples were…randomly used as 4 cases: Case 1 with AFM loading and the fluorescent tracer adding; Case 2 with fluorescent tracer adding only; Case 3 with AFM loading only as the control group; Case 4 with no treatment. The movement of fluorescent tracer was observed by two-photon fluorescent microscope and analyzed by self-made Matlab program. The microscopic structure was characterized by high resolution TEM. RESULTS: The fluorescent tracer in Case 1 exhibited faster and further transportation comparing to other cases, while in Case 2 diffused normally following Fick’s law. Case 3 with only AFM loading demonstrated that collagen bundles twisting along the fluid orientation, while the bundles in Case 4 with no treatment were straggling. The brush-like macromolecule structure of collagen microfibril was found on the bundle surfaces under TEM. CONCLUSIONS: Transportation within loose connective tissues is observed ex vivo . AFM loading, as the mechanical stimulation resemblance to muscle constrictions and blood pulsations, can facilitate the transportation as the driving force. The brush-like glycosaminoglycan macromolecular on the surfaces of the collagen bundles can be considered as a type of hierarchical porous media, which might forms the transport pathway for fluids. The possible mechanism was conducted regarding the conformation of surface macromolecule brushes.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Flap hypoperfusion or ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) may occur during preparation-transposition procedures and by postoperative thrombotic complications. Behind the microcirculatory disturbances micro-rheological alterations are also supposed. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the groin flap I/R with following-up micro-rheological parameters. METHODS: Anesthetized rats were subjected to Control or I/R groups. Groin flaps were prepared bilaterally, pedicled on the superficial epigastric vessels. In Control group the flaps were re-sutured after one hour, while in I/R group microvascular clips were applied on the pedicles for 60 minutes, then the flaps were repositioned. Besides daily wound control, before the operation…and on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th and 14th postoperative days blood samples were collected for testing red blood cell (RBC) deformability (rotational ektacytometry) and aggregation (light-transmission aggregometry). RESULTS: RBC deformability significantly worsened by the 3rd–7th postoperative day in I/R group. RBC aggregation enhanced significantly by the 1st day, in I/R group it remained elevated on the 3rd day as well. In a complicated case with unilateral flap necrosis, RBC deformability and aggregation worsening was outlined from its group (base, 1st, 3rd day). CONCLUSION: Wound healing affected micro-rheological parameters in the early postoperative period. Flap I/R exacerbated the alterations. The parameters markedly worsened in case of flap necrosis.
Abstract: Controlling mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) behavior is necessary to fully exploit their therapeutic potential. Various approaches are employed to effectively influence the migration capacity of MSCs. Here, topographic microstructures with different microscale roughness were created on polystyrene (PS) culture vessel surfaces as a feasible physical preconditioning strategy to modulate MSC migration. By analyzing trajectories of cells migrating after reseeding, we demonstrated that mobilization velocity of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) could be promoted and persisted by brief preconditioning with the appropriate microtopography. Moreover, the elevated activation levels of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in…hADSCs were also observed during and after preconditioning process. These findings underline the potential enhancement of in vivo therapeutic efficacy in regenerative medicine via transplantation of topographic microstructure preconditioned stem cells.
Abstract: Cerebrovascular diseases are considered in a different way concerning their etiology with regard to arterial and venous occlusion. The role of thrombophilia in this context remains undetermined. For this reason, a case-control study was conducted including a total of 202 patients (154 females, 48 males) aged from 18 to 76 years (mean: 39.8 years) suffering either from cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (n = 101) or from arterial ischemic stroke (n = 101). Study groups were evaluated on the basis of age- and gender-matched pairs. Gene mutations of factor V-1691 (factor V Leiden) and prothrombin-20210 being considered as the most common thrombophilia markers…were analyzed in this study. Factor V Leiden-mutations were found in 16.8% of patients with cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CVT) and in 17.8% of patients with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS), which was significantly more frequent than in controls at a rate of 4.95% (ORs: 3.89 and 4.16). Prothrombin-mutations were significantly more frequent in CVT at a rate of 14.9% versus 2.97% in controls (OR: 5.70). This does not apply for AIS showing a rate of 4.95% prothrombin-mutations. Rates of factor V Leiden-mutations are not different in CVT compared with AIS. In contrast, however, prothrombin-mutations were significantly more frequent in CVT than in AIS with a rate of 14.9% versus 4.95% (OR 3.35). Furthermore, 3 cases with combined heterozygosity of factor V Leiden- and prothrombin-mutation have been identified in CVT, but not in AIS or controls. All of the above mentioned mutations were exclusively heterozygous. We conclude from these data that thrombophilia in terms of factor V Leiden genotype is a risk factor for both CVT and AIS in equal measure. In contrast, prothrombin-20210-mutations were different playing a significant role in the pathogenesis of cerebral sinus vein- thrombosis, but not in arterial ischemic stroke. Also, the combined occurrence of heterozygous prothrombin- and factor V Leiden-mutation clearly favors the emergence of cerebral sinus venous thrombosis. Therefore, in terms of thrombophilia such as investigated in this study, pathogenesis of arterial and venous occlusions in cerebrovascular disease has to be regarded as different.
Abstract: Ultrasound contrast agents (USCA) allows the dynamic detection of blood flow of both the macro and microvasculature. An obvious prerequisite for USCAs is the unhindered passage of clinically relevant dose levels through the microcirculation especially of the lungue, where they have to pass capillaries with diameters of around 4 μm. While smaller microbubbles rapidly passed through the microcirculation along with the red blood cells, larger microbubbles, however, were observed to coalesce and interrupt the blood flow. Whether this might influence the tissue oxygen tension is unclear up to now. To examine this question a bolus of 2.4 ml SonoVue™ was…injected into the suprarenal aorta at a flow rate of 10 ml/s (a dosage usually applied in the clinic). The pO2 in the outer medulla of the kidney was continuously measured using a flexible pO2 microcatheter. In addition, the SonoVue™ injection and its passage through the renal vasculature were documented by the CEUS technology to assess whether the microbubbles passed the kidney. The study revealed that SonoVue™ induced no changes of the mean oxygen partial pressure in the outer medulla which confirms that these microbubbles on their way through the medullar capillaries did not hinder the co-flow of blood through the renal microvessels in a big animal model with a renal morphology and function comparable to human kidneys. These results demonstrate that the CEUS diagnostic itself did not influence the system to be examined which is a most important prerequisite for any diagnostic method.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Intra- and postoperative assessment of perfusion with near-infrared fluorescence imaging is commonly used among plastic surgeons to evaluate the quality of a microsurgical anastomosis in free flaps. OBJECTIVE: As microsurgical anastomosis can be monitored with near-infrared fluorescence imaging there is potential concerning revascularized fingers and hands with soft tissue depths not exceeding 7 mm above anastomosis. In a case of a severe crush injury of the hand more information about the perfusion was necessary as clinical assessment suspected loss of perfusion. METHODS: A 49-year old male suffered from a severe crush injury of his left hand…with dissection of the ulnar superficial palmar arterial arch and a lesion of median nerve. After revascularization and reconstruction of the nerve, the patient developed postoperatively a loss of perfusion of thumb and index finger. An evaluation of the perfusion status was obtained by fluorescence imaging after intravenous application of ICG. RESULTS: After intravenous application of ICG the near-infrared imaging showed a delayed but sufficient perfusion of the hand so that a salvage surgery was not indicated. CONCLUSIONS: In scenarios of critical perfusion in revascularized fingers and hands, the perfusion control via application of ICG and near-infrared fluorescence imaging can be a helpful tool.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Tetrazolium-based assays are optimized to assess proliferation/toxicity of monolayer or suspension cells in microtiter plates. With regard to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine the need for in vivo like 3D microtissues has an increasing relevance. Applying tetrazolium-based assays to 3D culture systems is technically more challenging. The composed microenvironment may influence the assay standards, e.g. equal distribution of tetrazolium. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of membrane-impermeable tetrazolium salt-based assays with regard to spheroid culture (3D) of human chondrocytes. METHODS: Chondrocytes were isolated from human articular cartilage. XTT, WST-1, and WST-8 were applied to monolayer cells (2D, varying…cell numbers) and spheroids (3D, different sizes) in 96well plates. Formazan formation was measured spectro-photo-metrically after different incubation periods. Evaluation was done using phase contrast microsopy (toxicity), analyzing the correlation of cell number and absorbance signals (Gompertz function), and document signal over background ratio. RESULTS: In monolayer culture the assays showed a correlation between seeded cell numbers and absorption data. Spheroid sizes are directly related to the starting cell number. A correlation between size and absorbance was only detectable starting from 10,000 cells/aggregate. Phase contrast microscopy of monolayer cells revealed strong toxicity effects of the WST-1 (4 h) and XTT (8 h) assay and no signs of toxicity using WST-8. CONCLUSION: The WST-8 assay is non-toxic and revealed the highest sensitivity in comparison to the XTT or WST-1 assay. There is evidence, that only cells of the outer rim of spheroids are able to convert membrane-impermeable tetrazolium salts to formazans.
Keywords: XTT, WST-1, WST-8, human chondrocytes, spheroid, 3D culture, 2D culture
Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are targeted as vehicles for cell mediated gene therapy. Here we report on a macromolecular carrier, which was designed aiming at successful targeted gene delivery into MSCs through the mediation of folate receptor and reduced cytotoxicity compared to established cationic polymer vector – polyethylenimine with a weight average molecular weight (Mw ) of 25,000 Dalton (PEI25K). The carrier PHPA-PEI1800-FA was synthesized in a two-step procedure. PHPA-PEI1800 was prepared by grafting polyethylenimine with a Mw of 1800 Dalton (PEI1800) onto the α,β-poly(N-3-hydroxypropyl)-D,L-aspartamide (PHPA) backbone. PHPA-PEI1800-FA was obtained by chemically conjugating folic acid onto PHPA-PEI1800. The grafting…degree of PEI1800 was 3.9±0.2% in relation to the CH groups of PHPA and the molar ratio of folic acid conjugated to PEI1800 (χ FA ) was 1.8±0.1 as calculated by NMR spectroscopy. The copolymers were biodegradable and exhibited lower cytotoxicity than PEI25K. Compared to PHPA-PEI1800, PHPA-PEI1800-FA led to a significantly higher transfection efficiency in human MSCs, which could be attributed to the mediation of folate receptor during the transfection process as confirmed by folic acid competition assay. Both marker gene (GFP) and therapeutic gene (VEGF) were delivered into human MSCs from multi-donors using PHPA-PEI1800-FA. The percentage of GFP+ MSCs showed an average value of 2.85±1.60% but a large variation for different samples. The VEGF expression level of the PHPA-PEI1800-FA transfected cells was significantly higher than that of either untransfected or naked DNA transfected cells. Conclusively, PHPA-PEI1800-FA is a suitable vector to deliver genes into human MSCs through the interaction with folate receptor.