Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume Preprint, issue Preprint
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: It is difficult to assess tumors of the parotid gland preoperatively. However, it is essential for the surgeon to know which kind of tumor is present. Ultrasound is the method of choice, but there is still no reliable differential diagnostic tool for determining whether a tumor is malignant or benign. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to examine the value of Virtual Touch imaging quantification (VTIQ) elastograpy in distinguishing between malignant and benign tumors as well as in identifying the most common benign tumor types. METHODS: The parenchyma of 100 parotid glands and 12…lymph nodes of healthy volunteers and 50 tumors of the parotid gland were analyzed via ultrasound, color Doppler ultrasound, and VTIQ, and the results were then compared with histopathology. RESULTS: In comparison with benign tumors, in malignant tumors the tumor border was diffuse, the perfusion higher, and the VTIQ quality much lower. Share wave velocity of the user-defined region of interest was more frequently higher than 6.8 m/s in malignant tumors in comparison to benign tumors. CONCLUSIONS: VTIQ in combination with ultrasound examination provides additional information for distinguishing between benign and malignant tumors and shows promise for integration into preexisting ultrasound protocols.
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to test the effects of hydroxyurea (HU) therapy on clinical, hematological and hemorheological parameters in adult patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA). Hematological and hemorheological parameters were measured in 28 SCA patients before HU therapy (i.e., baseline) and at 6, 12 and 24 months of treatment. RBC deformability was determined by ektacytometry at 30 Pa. RBC aggregation properties were investigated by light-backscatter method. Blood viscosity was measured at 225 s–1 by a cone-plate viscometer. The rates of vaso-occlusive crises and acute chest syndrome were lower at 1 and 2 years of HU therapy compared…to baseline. The proportion of patients with leg ulcers tended to decrease after 2 years of treatment. Hemoglobin oxygen saturation improved with HU therapy. HU therapy induced a decrease of platelet and white blood cell counts and a rise in fetal hemoglobin level and mean cell volume. While hemoglobin concentrations increased under HU, blood viscosity remained unchanged all along the study. RBC deformability increased over baseline values at 6 months of HU therapy and continued to rise until the end of the follow-up period. In conclusion, the improvement in RBC deformability probably compensates the increase of hemoglobin on blood viscosity and participates to the improvement of the clinical status of patients.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal perfusion (EP) is moving into focus of research in reconstructive and transplantation medicine for the preservation of amputates and free tissue transplants. The idea behind EP is the reduction of ischemia-related cell damage between separation from blood circulation and reanastomosis of the transplant. Most experimental approaches are based on a complex system that moves the perfusate in a circular course. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: In this study, we aimed to evaluate if a simple perfusion by an infusion bag filled with an electrolyte solution can provide acceptable results in terms of flow stability, oxygen supply and…viability conservation for EP of a muscle transplant. The results are compared to muscles perfused with a pump system as well as muscles stored under ischemic conditions with a one-time intravasal flushing with Jonosteril. RESULTS: With this simple method a sufficient oxygen supply could be achieved and functionality could be maintained between 3.35 times and 4.60 times longer compared to the control group. Annexin V positive nuclei, indicating apoptosis, increased by 9.7% in the perfused group compared to 24.4% in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, by decreasing the complexity of the system, EP by one-way infusion can become more feasible in clinical situations.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether thyroid nodule depth and other ultrasound features can predict nondiagnostic cytological results on ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 412 thyroid nodules that underwent ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration from 2014 to 2015. The nodules were classified as nondiagnostic and diagnostic by the cytopathological results. Clinical information of the patients (ie., age, sex) and ultrasound features (ie., size, depth, calcification, cystic content, vascularity) of the nodules were recorded and compared between the nondiagnostic group and diagnostic group. RESULTS: Age and sex were not significantly different between the…nondiagnostic group and diagnostic group (P > 0.05). Nodule depth >15 mm (OR, 7.128; P < 0.001), peripheral rim calcification (OR, 5.725; P = 0.01) and cystic content >50% (OR, 2.995; P = 0.018) were factors for the nondiagnostic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytopathological results. Macrocalcification in the nodule sized 5–10 mm was associated with the nondiagnostic results (P = 0.04). Nodule size and vascularity were not associated with the nondiagnostic results (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Nodule depth >15 mm, peripheral rim calcification and cystic content >50% were three independent predictors of the nondiagnostic cytopathological results. Macrocalcification in the nodule sized 5–10 mm was also associated with the nondiagnostic results.
Keywords: Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration, thyroid nodules, nondiagnostic cytopathology
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Sympathetic denervation and impaired angiogenesis cause skin diseases. However, the relationship between the sympathetic nervous system and vascular cell turnover in normal skin remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of sympathetic denervation on vascular cell turnover in normal skin. METHODS: Rats underwent bilateral L2–4 sympathetic trunk resection (sympathectomy group) or sham operation (control). Hindfoot plantar skin was analyzed 2 weeks and 3 months postoperatively. RESULTS: Mural cell marker (α-smooth muscle actin; p < 0.001, and desmin; p = 0.047) expression decreased 2 weeks after sympathectomy, but recovered 3 months after sympathectomy (p > 0.05).…CD31 levels were lower in the experimental group than in the control group at 2 weeks (p = 0.009), but not at 3 months. Von Willebrand factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and angiopoietin-2 expression were not significantly different between the groups (p > 0.05). Angiopoietin-1 expression levels were higher in the experimental group than in the control group at 2 weeks (p = 0.035), but not at 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: Lumbar sympathectomy regulates vascular cell turnover in rat hindfoot plantar skin by inhibiting mural cell proliferation and increasing angiopoietin-1 expression. Sympathetic nerves therefore play an important role in plantar skin vascular cell turnover.
Abstract: In this ESCHM 2016 conference talk report, we summarise two recently published original articles Franco et al. PLoS Biology 2015 and Franco et al. eLIFE 2016. The vascular network undergoes extensive vessel remodelling to become fully functional. Is it well established that blood flow is a main driver for vascular remodelling. It has also been proposed that vessel pruning is a central process within physiological vessel remodelling. However, despite its central function, the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating vessel regression, and their interaction with blood flow patterns, remain largely unexplained. We investigated the cellular process governing developmental vascular remodelling in…mouse and zebrafish. We established that polarised reorganization of endothelial cells is at the core of vessel regression, representing vessel anastomosis in reverse. Moreover, we established for the first time an axial polarity map for all endothelial cells together with an in silico method for the computation of the haemodynamic forces in the murine retinal vasculature. Using network-level analysis and microfluidics, we show that endothelial non-canonical Wnt signalling regulates endothelial sensitivity to shear forces. Loss of Wnt5a/11 renders endothelial cells more sensitive to shear, resulting in axial polarisation at lower shear stress levels. Collectively our data suggest that non-canonical Wnt signalling stabilizes forming vascular networks by reducing endothelial shear sensitivity, thus keeping vessels open under low flow conditions that prevail in the primitive plexus.
Abstract: The formation of a functionally-confluent and shear-resistant endothelial cell monolayer on cardiovascular implants is a promising strategy to prevent thrombogenic processes after implantation. On the basis of existing studies with arterial endothelial cells adhering after two hours on gelatin-based hydrogels in marked higher numbers compared to tissue culture plates, we hypothesize that also venous endothelial cells (HUVEC) should be able to adhere and form an endothelial monolayer on these hydrogels after days. Furthermore, variation of the hydrogel composition, which slightly influences the materials elasticity and even more the degradation behaviour, should have no considerable effect on HUVEC. Therefore, the monolayer…formation and shear resistance of HUVEC were explored on two gelatin-based hydrogels differing in their elasticity (Young’s moduli between 35 and 55 kPa) in comparison to a positive control (HUVEC on glass cover slips) and a negative control (HUVEC on glass cover slips activated with interleukin-1β) after 9 days of culturing. HUVEC density after 9 days of culturing under static conditions was lower on the hydrogels compared to both controls (p < 0.05 each). On G10_LNCO8 slightly more EC adhered than on G10_LNCO5. Staining of the actin cytoskeleton and VE-cadherin revealed a pronounced cell-substrate interaction while the cell-cell interaction was comparable to the controls (HUVEC on glass). The secretion of vasoactive and inflammatory mediators did not differ between the hydrogels and the controls. Adherent HUVEC seeded on the hydrogels were able to resist physiological shear forces and the release of cyto- and chemokines in response to the shear forces did not differ from controls (HUVEC on glass). Therefore, both gelatin-based hydrogels are a suitable substrate for EC and a promising candidate for cardiovascular applications.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is an inherited blood disorder. SCA patients present clinical and hematologic variability that cannot be only explained by the single mutation in the beta-globin gene. Others genetic modifiers and environmental effects are important for the clinical phenotype. SCA patients present arginine deficiency that contributes to a lower nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work is to determine the association between hematological and biochemical parameters and genetic variants from eNOS gene, in pediatric SCA patients. METHODS: 26 pediatric SCA patients were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)…and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) techniques in three important eNOS gene polymorphisms - rs2070744, rs1799983 and intron 4. RESULTS: Results from this study show a significant statistical association between some parameters and genetic variants: an increased reticulocyte count and high serum lactate dehydrogenase levels were associated with both the rs2070744_TT and the rs1799983_GG genotypes at eNOS gene and high levels of neutrophils were associated with the eNOS4a allele. CONCLUSIONS: Our results reinforce the importance of NO bioactivity in SCA. We presume that NO, and its precursors might be used as therapy to improve the quality of life of SCA patients.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Interaction of von Willebrand factor (VWF) with circulating platelets is the trigger for thrombosis in a region of arterial stenosis. These events are typically studied in vitro under conditions where platelets adhere to a VWF-coated surface. Our approach assesses platelet responses in the absence of adhesion. OBJECTIVE: To characterize extent of platelet activation and erythrocyte lysis in an artificial stenosis model. METHODS: Whole blood is perfused through a length of polyetheretherketone tubing that includes an artificial stenosis, comprising narrow-bore (89–381 μm) tubing. Secretion of [14 C] serotonin and hemoglobin release was measured to evaluate…platelet activation and hemolysis respectively at various perfusion rates and different stenosis dimensions. RESULTS: Platelet activation and erythrocyte lysis increased progressively with increasing perfusion rate and decreasing stenosis diameter; the length of the stenosis had negligible influence. Modest platelet activation (5–10% secretion of [14 C] serotonin) occurred without significant erythrocyte lysis under a limited range of perfusion conditions (4–6 mL/min flow through a 127 μm stenosis). CONCLUSIONS: Our experimental approach mimics conditions in severe arterial stenosis or a mechanical heart valve. It could be a valuable aid in the development of novel drugs to treat arterial thrombosis and in the design of heart valves.