Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume Preprint, issue Preprint
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: Monitoring of perfusion is a cornerstone in surgery, phlebology and basic science to proof wound healing by interventions. In chronic wound management it is of utmost importance to realize and parametrize wound bed perfusion to verify actual, and plan further treatment by noninvasive diagnostics. Up to now monitoring is based on visual inspection of wounds as conventionally practiced over more than decades. The main problems of visual inspection are the lack of standardization and comparability because of interindividual variations. Therefore technical performance with contact free probes based on standardized perfusion measuring is strongly needed. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) was investigated to…overcome manual and visual wound inspection in monitoring of wound healing. HSI works noninvasive, and imaging of relevant perfusion parameters is possible without the need of contrast enhancing drugs. METHODS: HSI technology uses imaging spectroscopic analysis in visual and near infrared spectrum to get information on imaged tissue in less than 10 s. Tissue is radiated by broad spectrum light and the following parameters are calculated from remitted spectra: the grade of oxygenation and the volume proportion of hemoglobin (in superficial and also deeper (8 mm) tissues. The calculated data comprise the “Tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation” (StO2 ) as percental oxygenation index to assess superficial perfusion (VIS-spectrum), the “Near infrared perfusion” (NIR) to assess deeper perfusion (near infrared spectrum) and the “Tissue hemoglobin index” (THI) to measure the percental volume of hemoglobin of surface perfusion (VIS-spectrum). The measurements of these parameters are calculated as false color-coded perfusion results on screen. We investigated different kind of wounds (combustion, infection, ulcer wounds, wounds in immune disorders, trauma wounds) determining superficial and deeper oxygen saturation, hemoglobin distribution and water content using hyperspectral imaging with TIVITA™ Tissue system. RESULTS: Hyperspectral Imaging allowed easy real time determination and visualization of hemodynamically relevant parameters- superficial and deeper oxygen saturation, total hemoglobin and tissue water content. In the patient with scleroderma, acral lesions with decreased perfusion correlated well with necrotic skin aspects. HSI clearly revealed macroscopic conspicuous suture wounds after Dupuytren surgery, infected soft tissue wounds with strong inflammatory hyperemia, edema in burn injuries, spatial geometry of abscess formation and chronic ulcer wounds. All measurements influenced further surveillance decisions. Hyperspectral imaging seems suitable for routine diagnostics and monitoring of skin and soft tissue lesions like acute and chronic wounds. It allows surveillance of postoperative suture wounds and burn wounds. Special indications may be transplant surveillance and monitoring of therapeutical interventions.
Keywords: Hemodynamic alteration, microcirculation, oxygen saturation, wound healing, wound medicine
Abstract: PURPOSE: Chronic recurrent parotitis (CRP) is a non-obstructive disease with episodes characterized by painful swelling of the parotid gland. It presents in both a juvenile and an adult form, with no clear information on its actual origin. Diagnosis is based on patient medical history and ultrasound examination but is frequently not correctly identified. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging (ARFI) is a novel ultrasound elastography technology that has recently been implemented in the diagnostic work-up of patients with malignancies. This study aimed to answer whether ARFI can reasonably be employed in the initial examination and follow-up during therapy in patients with…CRP. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Mechanical tissue properties of the salivary glands were analyzed by ARFI in 37 parotid glands of patients with CRP. RESULTS: Having integrated ARFI into our diagnostic protocol for CRP, affected parotid glands were found to exhibit lower tissue elasticity compared to both healthy contralateral glands in the same individuals as well as those of healthy individuals. Most importantly, this method enabled us to quantitatively assess the patient benefit of therapy regarding the recovery of the glands’ diseased parenchyma. CONCLUSIONS: ARFI provides a quick, easy, and reliable diagnostic tool for the assessment of disease severity and progression in patients with CRP that can be seamlessly implemented into preexisting ultrasound protocols.
Abstract: The chorioallantoic membrane of fertilized chicken eggs in an early phase of breeding presents an approved test situation for the growth and treatment of human cancer cells. These models work due to the inoculation of cells into the membrane that stays within the egg shell during the time of investigation. In this study a modification of this model is presented. Samples of native tumors, rather than cell lines, are transplanted into the membrane and the body of the egg is taken out of the shell and placed in a plastic bowl. These modifications lead to an enhanced accessibility to…the chorioallantoic membrane and the surrounding vessels thus facilitating intra venous access and application of pharmaceuticals and a focused radiotherapy. With the current modifications the embryo was kept alive and additionally, the vascularized tumor environment was preserved.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Breast Carcinoma is the most common malign tumor disease in women. 20–30% of these tumors have to be treated by removing all of the breast tissue. After that kind of therapeutic procedure, most of the women are severely traumatized and ask for reconstruction. The goldstandard of breast reconstruction is the free perforator flap from the lower abdomen (DIEAP-flap), which can provide body-own tissue and natural shape for the reconstructed breast. Many studies evaluate the shape of the reconstructed breast but neglect the skin sensitivity. Claim of this study was to compare this important part of reconstruction on two different…techniques of mastectomy. OBJECTIVE: In this retrospective study we evaluated which technique of mastectomy and breast reconstruction with DIEAP-Flap offers the highest outcome for sensibility of the reconstructed breast. Skin sparing mastectomy was compared with conventional mastectomy and the results of skin sensitivity were measured. METHODS: Ten patients underwent breast reconstruction with free abdominal perforator flap between 2011 and 2015 after conventional mastectomy (CM) and were compared with ten patients, who had a skin sparing mastectomy (SSM) with immediate reconstruction by DIEAP-flap during the same time interval. These two groups were matched by age, height, weight and the time between reconstruction and examination. The sensitivity of the skin was measured by Semmes-Weinstein-Filaments in the strength beginning from 0,07 g till 300 g for deep sensation. The logarithmic profile of these measurements had been transferred into a continuous data system beginning from 1 point, which stands for no sensation, till 7 points for pressure threshold of 0,07 g. RESULTS: Patients who underwent DIEAP-reconstruction after skin sparing mastectomy showed a higher sensation at all regions of the new breast in comparison to reconstruction after conventional mastectomy, beginning from the nipple to the areola and the breast skin. The results in the CM-group were 1.0 points at the mamilla, 1.33 pts. at the areola and 1.78 pts. at the breast skin. In the SSM-group, the findings were 3 pts. at the mamilla, 3.25 pts. at the areola and 5.25 pts. at the breast skin. CONCLUSION: The skin sparing mastectomy combined with immediate reconstruction by DIEAP-flap provides an excellent therapeutic option for patients, who are suitable for this technique, which takes into account not only the form but also the sensitivity of the breast.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To determine the influence of pre-interventionally existing portal vein thrombosis on the ablation success of percutaneous tumor ablation of HCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 15 patients with HCC and pre-existing portal vein thrombosis underwent thermal tumor ablation. We retrospectively analyzed the pre- and post-interventionally performed CT and MRI scans in terms of technical success as well as the complication rate. The portal vein thrombosis was classified into segmental, lobar and central thrombus. RESULTS: In 13/15 cases (87%) complete ablation with no evidence of residual tumor tissue was seen 6 weeks after the procedure in contrast-enhanced MRI…scans and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). No major and 2 minor complications were observed after the ablation procedure. CONCLUSION: Reduced perfusion due to pre-interventionally existing portal vein thrombosis has no significant impact on the ablation success or the complication rate.
Keywords: HCC, portal vein thrombosis, ablation, RFA, MWA
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Facial paralysis causes excruciating impairments including facial asymmetry, limited eye closure, oral incontinence and social dysfunction. Modern plastic surgical reconstructions render favorable results with well-perfused dynamic muscle flaps. Post-operative tissue monitoring is a critical determinant for success. Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) and elastography have proven superior properties to evaluate tissue perfusion in various organs. We evaluated their role for functional muscle flaps positioned at the sub-skin level in facial palsy patients. METHODS: From 2016–2017 five patients received muscle flap reconstructions. Flaps included four free transplants and one pedicled transfer. Postoperatively tissue vitality and blood flow were…assessed with CEUS. One experienced examiner using linear probes (6–9, 6–15 MHz) and bolus injections of Sulphur-hexafluoride microbubbles evaluated tissue perfusion. Using the time intensity curve- (TIC)-analysis measurements were recorded for TTP (time to peak) and AUC (Area under curve). Tissue elasticity was assessed with ultrasound elastography. RESULTS: All flaps were successful and showed no major complications. TTP-values in flap tissue showed slightly decreased values of 35.12±33.99 s and 25.04±10.86 s compared to surrounding tissue with 19.88±6.94 s. AUC-analysis however revealed higher values of 292.25±169.52 RU and 274.51±115.88 RU than surrounding tissue with 150.90±40.21 RU. Elastography demonstrated predominantly elastic flap tissue whereas surrounding tissue confirmed a slightly harder tissue quality. CEUS in combination with elastography verified tissue vitality and blood flow in a safe and reproducible manner. CONCLUSIONS: Post-operative perfusion monitoring in muscle flaps positioned at a sub-skin level may be performed superiorly by CEUS and elastography in a quick, reproducible and minimally-invasive fashion.
Abstract: The Laser Doppler technique, a noninvasive method to estimate skin blood flow (LDF), is frequently used in research and clinical routine [1 ]. Here, the measurements were carried out with a new Laser Doppler system, the DOPsystem, which allows to measure frequency spectra in four different frequency windows according to the velocities in venules (low velocity), capillaries (low to medium velocities), and in arteries (with high and very high velocities). However, the diagnostic reliability or the effectiveness of the LDF has not yet been evaluated sufficiently, which is indispensable, where medical diagnostics and therapy controls are concerned. For a valid…interpretation of LDF values of individual patients, the knowledge of the reference range and the variability of the measured parameters is required. In four successive studies the reference range (62 apparently healthy subjects), the circadian variability (8 subjects), the variability from day-to-day (6 subjects) and over one year with monthly measurements (6 subjects) were evaluated. With the knowledge of the reference range, microcirculatory disorders can now be diagnosed with the DOP method used. Following a standard measurement procedure there was no dependence of the measured data on the day or season of measurement.
Abstract: Polymeric matrixes mimicking multiple function of the ECM are expected to enable a material induced regeneration of tissues. Here, we investigated the adipogenic differentiation of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) in a 3D architectured gelatin based hydrogel (ArcGel) prepared from gelatin and L-lysine diisocyanate ethyl ester (LDI) in an one-step process, in which the formation of an open porous morphology and the chemical network formation were integrated. The ArcGel was designed to support adipose tissue regeneration with its 3D porous structure, high cell biocompatibility and mechanical properties compatible with human subcutaneous adipose tissue. The ArcGel could support initial…cell adhesion and survival of hADSCs. Under static culture condition, the cells could migrate into the inner part of the scaffold with a depth of 840±120 μm after 4 days, and distributed in the whole scaffold (2 mm in thickness) within 14 days. The cells proliferated in the scaffold and the fold increase of cell number after 7 days of culture was 2.55±0.08. The apoptotic rate of hADSCs in the scaffold was similar to that of cells maintained on tissue culture plate. When cultured in adipogenic induction medium, the hADSCs in the scaffold differentiated into adipocytes with a high efficiency (93±1%). Conclusively, this gelatin based 3D scaffold presented high cell compatibility for hADSC cultivation and differentiation, which could serve as a potential implant material in clinical applications for adipose tissue reparation and regeneration.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Vascular complications in renal transplant patients are a well-known issue in post transplant patient care. If malfunctioning of the renal transplant is suspected to be caused by vascular complications an early diagnosis and therapy is required to maintain the renal transplant. Computed tomography (CT), digital substraction angiography (DSA) and radioisotope renography are the gold standard imaging modalities to diagnose vascular complications. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in comparison to the standard imaging modalities CT, DSA and radioisotope renography in the diagnosis of vascular complications in renal transplant patients. Methods:…A total of 33 renal transplant recipients with elevated kidney function parameters with initial diagnostic imaging between 2006 and 2017 were included in the study. The imaging studies and clinical data were analysed retrospectively. The diagnostic accuracy of CEUS was compared to CT, DSA and renal scintigraphy respectively which are classified as gold standard for diagnosis of vascular complications in renal transplant patients. Out of 23 patients 15 patients showed vascular complications in CT, DSA or radioisotope renography and in 15 out of 15 patients CEUS detected the vascular complication. RESULTS: CEUS showed a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 66.7%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 71.4%, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%. CONCLUSIONS: CEUS is a non-nephrotoxic and safe method for the initial imaging of vascular complications in renal transplant recipients. Compared to the gold standard imaging modalities CT, DSA and radioisotope renography CEUS shows a high sensitivity and NPV in detecting vascular complications. In cases with suspected stenosis of the transplant renal artery additional DSA might be needed.