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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal perfusion (EP) is moving into focus of research in reconstructive and transplantation medicine for the preservation of amputates and free tissue transplants. The idea behind EP is the reduction of ischemia-related cell damage between separation from blood circulation and reanastomosis of the transplant. Most experimental approaches are based on a complex system that moves the perfusate in a circular course. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: In this study, we aimed to evaluate if a simple perfusion by an infusion bag filled with an electrolyte solution can provide acceptable results in terms of flow stability, oxygen supply and…viability conservation for EP of a muscle transplant. The results are compared to muscles perfused with a pump system as well as muscles stored under ischemic conditions with a one-time intravasal flushing with Jonosteril. RESULTS: With this simple method a sufficient oxygen supply could be achieved and functionality could be maintained between 3.35 times and 4.60 times longer compared to the control group. Annexin V positive nuclei, indicating apoptosis, increased by 9.7% in the perfused group compared to 24.4% in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, by decreasing the complexity of the system, EP by one-way infusion can become more feasible in clinical situations.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Flap hypoperfusion or ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) may occur during preparation-transposition procedures and by postoperative thrombotic complications. Behind the microcirculatory disturbances micro-rheological alterations are also supposed. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the groin flap I/R with following-up micro-rheological parameters. METHODS: Anesthetized rats were subjected to Control or I/R groups. Groin flaps were prepared bilaterally, pedicled on the superficial epigastric vessels. In Control group the flaps were re-sutured after one hour, while in I/R group microvascular clips were applied on the pedicles for 60 minutes, then the flaps were repositioned. Besides daily wound control, before the operation…and on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th and 14th postoperative days blood samples were collected for testing red blood cell (RBC) deformability (rotational ektacytometry) and aggregation (light-transmission aggregometry). RESULTS: RBC deformability significantly worsened by the 3rd–7th postoperative day in I/R group. RBC aggregation enhanced significantly by the 1st day, in I/R group it remained elevated on the 3rd day as well. In a complicated case with unilateral flap necrosis, RBC deformability and aggregation worsening was outlined from its group (base, 1st, 3rd day). CONCLUSION: Wound healing affected micro-rheological parameters in the early postoperative period. Flap I/R exacerbated the alterations. The parameters markedly worsened in case of flap necrosis.
Abstract: Multiblock copolymers type PDC are polyetheresterurethanes composed of poly(ɛ-caprolactone) and poly(p-dioxanone) segments. They were designed as degradadable shape-memory polymers for medical devices, which can be implanted minimally-invasively. While providing structural support in the initial phase after implantation, they are capable to modulate soft tissue regeneration while degradation. In this perspective, we elucidate cell-material interactions, compatibility both in-vitro and in-vivo and biofunctionality of PDC, which represents a promising candidate biomaterial family especially for cardiovascular applications.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Conventional ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound play an important role in the application of carotid plaque. AIMS: To establish carotid artery vulnerable plaques plaque model by conventional ultrasound combined with contrast-enhanced ultrasound, identify high-risk plaques that may lead to cerebrovascular events, and provide clinical risk warning of high-risk plaques of stroke. METHODS: 205 cases of patients selected in 5053 patients with symptoms from 2018 to 2019 who were verified carotid plaques by conventional ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound image characteristics, 147 cases as a training set, establishing the carotid artery plaque model, analyzing the characteristic of the…plaques and the relationship between cerebrovascular event, with 58 cases as a test set, verify the model. Routine carotid ultrasound and contrast-enhanced carotid ultrasound were performed in all enrolled patients. RESULTS: The gray-level characteristics of conventional ultrasound in the training concentration showed statistical differences in plaque morphology, fibrous cap morphology, uniformity and calcification degree in cerebrovascular events. The contrast enhanced ultrasound characteristics of plaques showed statistical differences in neovascularization and perfusion mode in cerebrovascular events. In the test set, there were statistical differences in the above conventional gray scale features and CEUS features. CONCLUSION: The vulnerable plaque model established by conventional ultrasound combined with contrast-enhanced ultrasound has good diagnostic value for the characteristic plaque of carotid artery with cerebrovascular events.
Keywords: Carotid plaques, ultrasound, contrast-enhanced ultrasound, vulnerable plaque model
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a common disorder with the risk of vascular injury. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of low-intensity resistance exercise with blood flow restriction versus high-intensity resistance exercise on platelet CD markers and indices in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Fifteen female patients with type 2 diabetes (Mean±SD; age, 47.6±7.2 yrs) randomly completed two resistance exercise at an intensity corresponding to 20% and 80% of one-repetition maximum (1-RM), with and without blood flow restriction (REBFR and RE), respectively. We measured markers of platelet activation (P-selectin, GpIIb/IIIa, and…CD42) and platelet indices before and immediately after exercise, and after 30 min recovery. RESULTS: Platelet count (PLT) and plateletcrit (PCT) increased in response to REBFR more than the RE (p < 0.05), though, no significant differences in PDW and MPV were observed (p < 0.05). Although P-selectin (CD62P), CD61, CD41, and CD42 were reduced following resistance exercise in both trials, these reductions were non-significant (p < 0.05). Besides, no significant between-group differences were found for platelet CD markers (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that REBFR induces thrombocytosis, but responses of platelet CD markers in patients with type 2 diabetes are similar following low-intensity REBFR and high-intensity RE.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Age-related mechanisms of sarcopenia associated with vascular function have been recently suggested. This study compared and tested associations between muscle mass and strength, microcirculation, inflammatory biomarkers, and oxidative stress in older adults classified as sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic. METHODS: Thirty-three physically inactive individuals (72±7 yrs) were assigned to age-matched sarcopenic (SG) and non-sarcopenic (NSG) groups. Between-group comparisons were performed for appendicular skeletal mass (ASM), handgrip and isokinetic strength, microvascular function and morphology, C-reactive protein, insulin-like growth factor-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, endothelin-1, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein.…RESULTS: ASM and knee isokinetic strength were lower in SG than NSG (P < 0.05). No difference between groups was found for outcomes of microvascular function and morphology, but log-transformed IL-6 concentration was twice greater in SG vs. NSG (P = 0.02). Correlations between ASM index, handgrip and knee isokinetic strength vs. markers of microcirculatory function, capillary diameters, vascular reactivity, and endothelial injury were found only in SG. CONCLUSION: Decreased ASM index and strength have been associated with microcirculatory profile, indicating that microcirculation impairment may be involved somehow in Sarcopenia development. The inflammation status, particularly elevated IL-6, seems to play an important role in this process.
Keywords: Aging, muscle mass, muscle strength, endothelial function, interleukin-6, health
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Thrombosis represents one of the most feared complications of the COronaVIrus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). Although pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis are the most described complications, some investigations reported thrombotic localization also in the splanchnic venous district. METHODS: We describe the case of a patient with SARS-CoV-2 infection presenting with abdominal pain and diagnosed with portal vein thrombosis. In addition, we shortly review available literature supporting the possible role of COVID-19 as leading cause of splanchnic venous thrombosis. RESULTS: After in-depth diagnostic workup, we excluded the commonest causes of portal thrombosis and concluded that SARS-CoV-2 infection…represented the main explanation of this finding. CONCLUSIONS: Our study warns the clinicians to maintain a high index of suspicion for thrombosis in patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection manifesting gastrointestinal symptoms. An appropriate diagnostic work-up could allow to obtain an early diagnosis and consequently improve the clinical outcome of patients.
Abstract: This study aimed to describe the characteristics of superficial desmoid fibromatosis (DF) using two-dimensional and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, intending to improve diagnostic accuracy. We retrospectively analyzed 19 cases of superficial DF confirmed by surgery or core-needle biopsy in our hospital from January 2018 to August 2020. All patients underwent two-dimensional and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) examination. Nineteen patients included 15 women and 4 men, with an average age of 33.37±12.13 years old. The mean size of lesions was 4.78±1.99 cm. On ultrasound, all lesions presented as solitary heterogeneous hypoechoic masses; 13 presented with ill-defined margins. Ten lesions (52.63%) presented with fusiform shapes, and…11 lesions (57.89%) presented with the “fascial tail” sign. CEUS suggested the tumors were hyperenhanced, with an enhanced pattern of rapid wash-in and slow wash-out. Four lesions (21.05%) showed an enlarged scope in the CEUS image compared with the grayscale ultrasound image. In conclusion, an ill-defined heterogeneous hyperechoic appearance with fusiform-shaped and “fascial tail” signs on US and heterogeneous hyperenhancement with an enlarged scope on CEUS are valuable clues in the diagnosis and treatment of superficial DF.
Abstract: Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are a promising cell source to generate the patient-specific lung organoid given their superior differentiation potential. However, the current 3D cell culture approach is tedious and time-consuming with a low success rate and high batch-to-batch variability. Here, we explored the establishment of lung bud organoids by systematically adjusting the initial confluence levels and homogeneity of cell distribution. The efficiency of single cell seeding and clump seeding was compared. Instead of the traditional 3D culture, we established a 2.5D organoid culture to enable the direct monitoring of the internal structure via microscopy. It was found…that the cell confluence and distribution prior to induction were two key parameters, which strongly affected hiPSC differentiation trajectories. Lung bud organoids with positive expression of NKX 2.1, in a single-cell seeding group with homogeneously distributed hiPSCs at 70%confluence (SC_70%_hom) or a clump seeding group with heterogeneously distributed cells at 90%confluence (CL_90%_het), can be observed as early as 9 days post induction. These results suggest that a successful lung bud organoid formation with single-cell seeding of hiPSCs requires a moderate confluence and homogeneous distribution of cells, while high confluence would be a prominent factor to promote the lung organoid formation when seeding hiPSCs as clumps. 2.5D organoids generated with defined culture conditions could become a simple, efficient, and valuable tool facilitating drug screening, disease modeling and personalized medicine.
Keywords: Lung organoid, human induced pluripotent stem cell, cell culture