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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
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Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can cause acute respiratory distress Syndrome (ARDS). OBJECTIVE: This single centre cross-section study aimed to grade the severity of pneumonia by bed-side lung ultrasound (LUS). METHODS: A scoring system discriminates 5 levels of lung opacities: A-lines (0 points),≥3 B-Line (1 point), coalescent B-Lines (2 points), marked pleural disruptions (3 points), consolidations (4 points). LUS (convex 1–5 MHz probe) was performed at 6 defined regions for each hemithorax either in supine or prone position. A lung aeration score (LAS, maximum 4 points) was allocated for each patient by calculating the arithmetic mean of…the examined lung areas. Score levels were correlated with ventilation parameters and laboratory markers. RESULTS: LAS of 20 patients with ARDS reached from 2.58 to 3.83 and was highest in the lateral right lobe (Mean 3.67). Ferritin levels (Mean 1885μg/l; r = 0.467; p = 0.051) showed moderate correlation in spearman roh calculation. PaCO2 level (Mean 46.75 mmHg; r = 0.632; p = 0.005) correlated significantly with LAS, while duration of ventilation, Horovitz-Index, CRP, LDH and IL-6 did not. CONCUSIONS: The proposed LAS describes severity of lung opacities in COVID-19 patients and correlates with CO2 retention in patients with ARDS.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of dynamic contrast enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) in predicting treatment response of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) lesions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 10 patients with pathologically confirmed LAPC lesions (7 men, 3 women; average age, 61.13±5.80 years) were prospectively enrolled. All patients received HIFU treatment with peak intensity at 12000 W/cm2 . Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) was performed with an ACUSON Oxana 2 ultrasound equipment and a 6 C-1 transducer (1–6 Hz). A dose of 2.4 ml SonoVue was injected for each examination. Time intensity curves (TICs)…were generated and quantitative analyses were performed by SonoLiver software. B mode ultrasound (BMUS) features, CEUS enhancement patterns, TICs, CEUS quantitative parameters and serum carcinoma antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) levels were compared before and 4 weeks after HIFU treatment. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS Version 20.0 and GraphPad Prism 5. RESULTS: While comparing before and after HIFU, no significant difference was obtained on mean size of lesion, BMUS or CEUS features. After HIFU treatment, TICs showed decreased and delayed enhancement. Among all CEUS quantitative parameters, significant decrease could be found in maximum intensity (MI) (60.66±23.95% vs 41.31±26.74%) and mean transit time (mTT) (76.66±47.61 s vs 38.42±28.35 s). CA19-9 level decreased significantly after HIFU (2747.92±4237.41 U/ml vs 715.08±1773.90 U/ml) (P = 0.05). CONCLUSION: DCE-US combining with quantitative analysis might be a useful imaging method for early treatment response evaluation of HIFU in LAPC lesions.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to find the optimal parameters and cutoffs to differentiate metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) from benign LNs in the patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) on the quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features. METHODS: A total of 134 LNs in 105 patients with PTCs were retrospectively enrolled. All LNs were evaluated by conventional ultrasound (US) and CEUS before biopsy or surgery. The diagnostic efficacy of CEUS parameters was analyzed. RESULTS: Univariate analysis indicated that metastatic LNs more often manifested centripetal or asynchronous perfusion, hyper-enhancement, heterogeneous enhancement, ring-enhancing margins, higher PI,…larger AUC, longer TTP and DT/2 than benign LNs at pre-operative CEUS (p < 0.001, for all). Multivariate analysis showed that centripetal or asynchronous perfusion (OR = 3.163; 95% CI, 1.721–5.812), hyper-enhancement(OR = 0.371; 95% CI, 0.150–0.917), DT/2 (OR = 7.408; 95% confidence interval CI, 1.496–36.673), and AUC (OR = 8.340; 95% CI, 2.677–25.984) were predictive for the presence of metastatic LNs. The sensitivity and accuracy of the quantitative CEUS were higher than qualitative CEUS (75% vs 55 % and 83.6% vs 76.1 % , respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative CEUS parameters can provide more information to distinguish metastatic from benign LNs in PTC patients; In particular, DT/2 and AUC have a higher sensitivity and accuracy in predicting the presence of metastatic LNs and reduce unnecessary sampling of benign LNs.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate prostate cancer detection rate of different biopsy protocols in different PSA value groups in rural China. METHODS: A total of 186 patients underwent contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in order to determine the puncture target prior to biopsy were enrolled in this retrospective study. All patients underwent 12-core SB combined with CEUS-TB. The biopsy results of different biopsy protocols were compared in patients with stratification by PSA value. RESULTS: Among the 186 patients underwent prostate biopsy, the histopathologic results revealed prostate cancer (PCa) in 117 cases (62.9%) and benign lesions in 69 cases (37.1%). The…PCa detection rate between 8-core SB and 12-core SB showed no significant difference in PSA 4–10 ng/ml group, while the 12-core SB was significantly higher than CEUS-TB (44.9% versus 32.7% , P = 0.01). In PSA 10–20 ng/ml group, the significant difference was not seen between SB and CEUS-TB (50.0% versus 45.7% , P = 0.15). As for PSA greater than 20 ng/ml group, the PCa detection rate by SB was higher than CEUS-TB, but showed no statistically significance (79.1% versus 76.9% , P = 0.15). In the overall patients, the biopsy core positive rate of CEUS-TB was significantly higher than SB (97% versus 55.5% and 28.5% , P = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The flexible use of SB combined with CEUS-TB can reduce the number of biopsy cores in higher PSA groups. It has clinical importance in the detection of PCa in different PSA value groups in rural China.
Abstract: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a disease characterized by abnormal red blood cell rheology. Because of their effects on HbS polymerization and red blood cell deformability, alpha-thalassemia and the residual HbF level are known genetic modifiers of the disease. The aim of our study was to determine if the number of HbF quantitative trait loci (QTL) would also favor a specific sub-phenotype of SCA as it is the case for alpha-thalassemia. Our results confirmed that alpha-thalassemia protected from cerebral vasculopathy but increased the risk for frequent painful vaso-occlusive crises. We also showed that more HbF-QTL may provide an additional and…specific protection against cerebral vasculopathy but only for children with alpha-thalassemia (-α /α α or -α /-α genotypes).
Abstract: Purpose: To propose a diagnostic algorithm for improving the diagnosis of atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) thyroid nodules. Methods: This study retrospectively enrolled 77 consecutive patients with 81 AUS/FLUS nodules who underwent preoperative BRAFV600E mutation analysis. A new diagnostic algorithm was proposed that BRAFV600E mutation analysis for the Fine-needle aspiration cytology specimen was firstly carried out, in which positive BRAFV600E mutation indicated malignancy and classification of the nodules with negative BRAFV600E mutation was further performed based on ultrasound pattern-based risk stratification of American Thyroid Association Guidelines. The diagnostic…performance of the new diagnostic algorithm was evaluated. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of new diagnostic algorithm were 94.6%, 84.0%, 91.4%, 86.9%, 90.1%, and 0.893, respectively. The proposed diagnostic algorithm significantly increased the diagnostic performances (AUROC: 0.893 vs. 0.837 and 0.795), sensitivity (94.6% vs. 71.4% and 75.0%), and accuracy (90.1% vs. 79.0% and 77.8%) compared with BRAFV600E mutation analysis alone and ultrasound pattern-based risk stratification alone (all P < 0.05). Conclusion: The proposed diagnostic algorithm is helpful for improving the diagnosis of AUS/FLUS nodules, which might be as a routine approach.
Abstract: The emerging coronavirus disease (COVID-19) swept the world, affecting more than 200 countries and territories. As of August 22, 2020, the pandemic infected more than 23,329,752 including 807,054 patients who have died. Although the main clinical features of the pandemic disease are respiratory, cerebrovascular comorbidities emerged as one of the leading causes of death associated with COVID-19. Different case reports have indicated that C-reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer (pro-inflammatory biomarkers) were elevated in COVID-19 patients, which can significantly increase the risk of ischemic stroke. Available data on cerebrovascular complications in COVID-19 patients were collected and a meta-analysis was designed and…carried out to evaluate the risk of severity and mortality associated with high levels of CRP and D-dimer levels in COVID-19 patients. In addition, we aimed to describe the overall event rate of pre-existing cerebrovascular disease in COVID-19 patients. In our analysis, 5,614 cases have been studied, out of these patients 164 cases have developed cerebrovascular comorbities. Cerebrovascular comorbidity increased the risk of disease severity (odd ratio = 4.4; 95% CI: 1.48 to 12.84) and mortality (odd ratio = 7.0; 95% CI: 2.56 to 18.99). Statistical analyses showed that CRP and D-dimer serum levels were elevated by six-folds in the severe cases of COVID-19 patients. This significant increase in these two proteins levels can serve as a vital indicator for COVID-19 patients who are at increased risk of severe COVID-19 cerebrovascular complications, such as stroke.
Keywords: Cerebrovascular disease, COVID-19, Stroke, C - reactive protein, D-dimer
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Molecular targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging is a potential imaging strategy to improve the diagnostic accuracy of conventional ultrasound (US) imaging. US contrast agents are usually micrometer-sized and non-target gas bubbles while nano-sized and targeted agents containing phase-shift materials absorb more attractions for their size and the liquid core and excellent molecular imaging effect. METHODS: PLGA12k -mPEG2k -NH2 , DSPE-mPEG2k and perfluorohexan (PFH) were used to construct a new targeted ultrasound contrast agent with CUB domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1) receptor for the detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer. The potential of tumor-targeted nanoparticles (CDCP1-targeted perfluorohexan-loaded phase-transitional…nanoparticles, anti-CDCP1 NPs) as contrast agents for ultrasound (US) imaging was assessed in vitro . Moreover, studies on the cytotoxicity and the targeting ability of anti-CDCP1 NPs assisted by US were carried out. RESULTS: The results showed that anti-CDCP1 NPs had low cytotoxicity, and with the increasing of polymer concentration in anti-CDCP1 NPs, the CEUS imaging of agent gradually enhanced, and enhanced imaging associated with the length of observing time. Furthermore, it was testified that anti-CDCP1 assisted the agent to target cells expressing CDCP1, which demonstrated the active targeting of anti-CDCP1 NPs in vitro . CONCLUSION: All in all, the feasibility of using targeted anti-CDCP1 NPs to enhance ultrasound imaging has been demonstrated in vitro , which laid a solid foundation for molecular US imaging in vivo , and anti-CDCP1 NPs might have a great clinical application prospect.
Keywords: Targeted nanoparticle, contrast agent, prostate cancer