Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 29, issue 3,4
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: This study was designed to observe the effect of tumor conditioned medium (TCM) on the proliferation and apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were exposed to TCM from breast carcinoma cell line MDA‐MB‐231, then we measured their proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution by MTT and flow cytometery (FCM). Following the stimulation of TCM, HUVECs showed higher pro‐mitogenic and anti‐apoptotic ability than did the negative control group (ECGF‐free medium with 20% FBS), but a similar ability to the positive control group (medium with ECGF and 20% FBS). From these results, we can conclude that breast carcinoma cell…line MDA‐MB‐231 could secret soluble pro‐angiogenic factors that induce HUVEC angiogenic switching, including cell cycle progression, proliferation and growth. The role and character of these factors remain to be further studied.
Abstract: This study was designed to comprehensively analyze the differential expression of proteins from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to tumor conditioned medium (TCM) and to identify the key regulator in the cell cycle progression. The HUVECs were exposed to TCM from breast carcinoma cell line MDA‐MB‐231, then their cell cycle distribution was measured by flow cytometer (FCM). The role of protein in cell cycle progression was detected via two‐dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2‐DE) and western blotting. Following the stimulation of TCM, HUVECs showed a more cells in the S phase than did the negative control group (ECGF‐free medium…with 20% FBS), but the HUVECs' level was similar to the positive control group (medium with 25 μg/ml ECGF and 20% FBS). Increased expression of cyclin D1 /E and some changes in other related proteins occurred after incubation with TCM. From our results, we can conclude that breast carcinoma cell line MDA‐MB‐231 may secrete soluble pro‐angiogenic factors that induce the HUVEC angiogenic switch, during which the expression of cell cycle regulator cyclin D1 /E increases and related proteins play an important role in this process.
Keywords: Tumor conditioned medium, endothelium, cell cycle, 2‐DE, Western blot
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of L‐arginine (L‐Arg) on cerebral blood perfusion and vasomotion (perfusion motion) in microvessels following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Rat noncraniotomy SAH models were used and animals were divided into sham‐operated, saline‐treated, and L‐Arg‐treated groups. L‐Arg was injected intraperitoneally 30 minutes before the operation and repeated every 6 hours, with a single dose of 0.5 g/kg bw. Dynamic changes in regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and vasomotion within 24 hours were measured using a laser Doppler flow‐meter probe. Serum nitric oxide (nitrite/nitrate) and plasma endothelin‐1 levels were also measured at different time…points within 24 hours. Morphologic changes in neurons in the hippocampus CA1 region were examined. SAH gave rise to an immediate and persistent decrease in CBF in saline‐treated rats. Abnormal vasomotions with decreased frequency and amplitude were observed. Serum nitric oxide decreased, while plasma endothelin‐1 increased significantly. Neurons in the hippocampus CA1 region were severely damaged. The above pathological alterations in the L‐Arg‐treated group were alleviated. It was concluded that L‐Arg, which increases cerebral blood perfusion and improves vasomotions of microvessels by enhancing nitric oxide levels and decreasing endothelin‐1 levels in blood, exerts a protective effect on secondary cerebral ischemic injury following experimental SAH.
Abstract: In the interest of creating readily transfusable blood, we have developed a method of covalently bonding methoxy polyethylene gylcol (mPEG) to the erythrocyte membrane to mask antigens which would otherwise cause immunorejection in unmatched blood transfusions. Previous studies have reported the ability of mPEG to mask erythrocyte antigens without significantly affecting viability, morphology, deformability, and other membrane functions. Our spectrophotometric analysis of modified erythrocytes has shown that as well as its other properties, mPEG‐coated red blood cells can still take up oxygen, while remaining antigenically silent.
Abstract: Ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin are three hormones which are frequently associated with metabolism, obesity and appetite. Recently, it has been shown that they may possess other physiologic roles, specially in connection with the circulation. Ghrelin infusion increases forearm blood‐flow in a dose‐dependent manner. Leptin has been shown to be involved not only in thermogenesis but angiogenesis as well. Adiponectin, apart from its insulin‐sensitizing action, appears to modulate inflammation by inhibiting monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Six monkeys, which had been classified as being in the pre‐diabetic state, where administered a triglyceride lowering regimen. Microvascular function was assessed using a laser…Doppler flow‐meter during a temperature provocation test. Percent change in flow from baseline following temperature elevation, as well as percent change in flow/degree rise in temperature were used to evaluate microvascular reserve and reactivity. Using univariate analysis, it appears that increased perfusion is significantly correlated with adiponectin, followed by leptin. Flow was also positively correlated with ghrelin, but the relationship did not attain significance. As expected, flow was also negatively and significantly correlated with fibrinogen. Trends show that flow was also negatively correlated to circulating triglyceride levels (p=0.08). The data indicate that the three hormones appear to possess microvascular actions that may impact on their other physiologic functions.
Abstract: The maturity of pericytes in cerebral neocapillaries induced by two different growth factors: basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and platelet‐derived growth factor (PDGF), was examined using an immunohistochemical staining technique. Cerebral angiogenesis was induced in mice by implanting a sandwich system of bFGF/PDGF gel and nylon‐mesh over the exposed cortex. On 28th day after incubation, a small volume of cerebral tissue with the nylon‐mesh was isolated and stained using tetramethyl rhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC)‐labeled secondary antibody to the primary antibody against NG2 proteoglycan and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)‐labeled Griffonia simplicifolia (GS)‐lectin. Using a confocal laser microscopic system, we observed the cerebral…neocapillaries on the upper surface of the nylon‐mesh and evaluated the maturity of pericytes stained with NG2 based on the fluorescence immunohistological images. The pericyte appeared rich in neocapillaries induced by PDGF. It was suggested that pericytes might play a key role in the regulation of blood flow in neovessels.
Abstract: To compare the level of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression produced in heart and lung vascular tissue, the protein content was determined using Western blot analysis with the enhancement of image processing. Heart and lung extracts from 12 and 24 weeks from control (CON) and streptozotocin‐induced diabetic (DM) rats were collected for Western blot analysis. Using monoclonal antibody against rat eNOS protein (140 kDa), the eNOS‐protein bands were detected with enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL; Amersham) and exposured to film (Hyperfilm‐ECL; Amersham). Images of eNOS bands on each film were then scanned and saved to digital files. Using Global Lab Image…software, the number of pixels in each digital file was counted and calibrated for eNOS‐protein content. For the CON and DM groups, the mean values of eNOS‐protein contents were calculated and expressed as a percentage of total protein content, 5 μg. It was found that the eNOS level in DM hearts was significantly decreased, as compared to age‐matched CON hearts. On the other hand, eNOS levels in DM lungs was increased, compared to CON lungs. Therefore, it may be concluded that high, not low, flow‐mediated eNOS expression is a good measure of hyperglycemic‐induced endothelial dysfunction.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the short‐term effects of an intensive lifestyle modification (ILM) program on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Twenty‐two patients in the control group continued to receive their conventional treatment with lipid‐lowering drugs, whereas 22 patients in the experimental group were assigned to intensive lifestyle modification (ILM) without taking any lipid‐lowering agent. The ILM program comprised dietary advice on low‐fat diets, high antioxidants and high fiber intakes, yoga exercise, stress management and smoking cessation. After 4 months of intervention, patients in the experimental group revealed a statistically…significant increase in plasma total antioxidants, plasma vitamin E and erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) compared to patients in the control group. There was no significant change in plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), a circulating product of lipid peroxidation, in either group. We concluded that the ILM program increased circulating antioxidants and reduced oxidative stress in patients with CAD.
Abstract: Decreased levels of nitric oxide play a role in the development of cerebral ischemia secondary to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The protective effect of L‐arginine on brain edema following SAH was investigated in this study. Rats were divided randomly into a sham‐operated, a SAH+saline group and a SAH+L‐arginine group. At different time points, brain water content was determined using the wet and dry weight compared method. Brain sodium content, potassium content and calcium content were detected using an atomic absorption spectral photometer. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) were also detected. It was found that rat SAH models were successfully replicated. In the…SAH+saline group, brain water and sodium content were significantly higher at 6 h and 24 h than those in the sham‐operated group, while brain potassium content was statistically lower than that in the sham‐operated group. Brain calcium content increased from 1 h to 24 h after induction of SAH. SEP latency progressively delayed. In the SAH+L‐arginine group, increases in brain water content, sodium content and calcium content, as well as decreases in brain potassium content, were not as obvious as in the SAH+saline group. L‐arginine partly prevented a delay in SEP latency. In conclusion, L‐arginine, a substrate of nitric oxide synthesis, may relieve brain edema in rats with experimental SAH.
Abstract: A new technique using particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been developed to evaluate the detailed velocity profiles of red cells flowing in microvessels. The microcirculation in rat mesentery was directly observed using high‐speed videomicroscopy, and the images of red cells flowing in the mesenteric arterioles were recorded simultaneously with the arterial blood pressure. Based on the high‐speed videomicroscopic images obtained, velocity vectors in single or branched arterioles were evaluated to obtain velocity profiles across the cross‐section of arterioles. It was shown that in single and straight arterioles the velocity profile was blunt with a pit at the central region, and…its pit was marked in bifurcation. The present technique enables us to analyze red cell velocity profiles up to 0.8 μm in the spatial resolution and 1 msec in the time interval.
Abstract: The erythrocyte aggregation and deformability of blood samples obtained from normal subjects and malaria patients are determined by microscopic imaging and laser aggregometry techniques, and optical hemorheometer, respectively. By these techniques several parameters are determined but four parameters, aggregate sedimentation velocity (ASV), effective number of cells (ENC), process completion time (PCT) and mean filtration time (MFT), show significant variation in malaria patients compared to that of healthy subjects. For malaria severity analysis artificial neural network (ANN), based on feedforward‐error back‐propagation algorithm in a supervisory training mode is proposed. This network is first trained for different number of epochs ranging from…20 to 50 by set of patterns and at 30 epochs training session the minimum mean square error (MSE) between desired and actual output is obtained. By applying the same procedure the test patterns belonging to normal, non‐severe, severe, and highly severe malaria (NSM, SM and HSM) are identified. The results show that malaria with high severity is classified accurately (100%). The success of classification for non‐severe and mildly‐severe malaria ranges from 60% to 80%.
Abstract: Glomerular endothelial cell dysfunction (GED) with defective release of vasodilator has been delineated in nephrosis (NS) in vivo and in vitro studies. In NS with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), an immunocirculatory balance may be impaired due to defective anti‐inflammatory cytokine. This study aimed at simultaneous determination of both proinflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor alpha) and an anti‐inflammatory cytokine (interleukin‐10) in NS with FSGS. An endothelial cell cytotoxicity (ECC) was also examined using nephrotic serum. It was shown that (1) the initial endothelial cell cytotoxicity was significantly different from the control, (2) ratio between tumor necrosis alpha and interleukin‐10 was significantly…elevated, and (3) intrarenal hemodynamics was changed significantly.