Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 27, issue 3,4
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the RBC deformability and oxidative stress parameters during acute pancreatitis. Healthy volunteers and patients with mild or severe acute pancreatitis were evaluated. There were no changes in erythrocyte's deformability in patients with mild acute pancreatitis. In severe acute pancreatitis loss of deformability of erythrocytes was observed. Serum lipofuscin level increased both in mild and severe form of the disease. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased in erythrocytes from mild and severe form without systemic complications and was positively correlated with erythrocyte's deformability in a severe form of acute pancreatitis. Significant positive…correlation between serum total antioxidant status and deformability of erythrocytes in healthy humans and negative correlation in mild pancreatitis were found.
Abstract: In order to differentiate between the contributions of cellular and plasmatic factors to the elevated aggregation in pregnancy‐induced hypertension (PIH), we determined RBC aggregation in autologous plasma and in plasma‐free medium. The aggregation was determined as a function of shear stress, to evaluate the strength of the intercellular interaction. These procedures were applied to RBC from PIH women (n=20), normotensive pregnant (NTP) women (n=15), and non‐pregnant (control) women (n=15). The average aggregate size (AAS) in plasma for PIH, NTP and control RBC was 38.7±3.2, 28.4±3.0, and 11.5±2.2 (P<0.05, between the three groups), respectively. For the same groups, the aggregation in…plasma‐free standard medium was 17.3±2.0, 12.0±1.2 and 10.0±1.6 (P<0.05 between PIH and the other two groups), respectively. The contribution of plasma to the elevated aggregation was 75% and 88% for PIH and NTP respectively. τS50 , the shear stress required to singly disperse 50% of the RBC population, in plasma and in standard medium, was about the same for PIH and NTP, and both were markedly higher than that for control RBC. These findings suggest that the increased aggregation of RBC from women with PIH, over those at of NTP women, may be due largely to changes in cellular factors and the increased aggregability has the potential to affect blood flow mainly in low‐flow states such as in the placental intervillous space.
Abstract: We investigated the influence of kind of fluids used for transfusion – crystalloids and colloids – on the rheological parameters of blood with a special focus on the range of low shear rates. The blood viscosity measurements were performed with the use of a rotary‐oscillatory rheometer Contraves LS 40. The investigation includes the measurements of blood viscosity and a hematocrit value at three stages: before, just after and two hours after transfusion. On the basis of results obtained for a group of patients prepared for procedures in epidural anaesthesia we concluded that the dilution effect for colloids (HES and dextran)…was maintained longer then for crystalloids (Ringer solution). Measurements of blood viscosity at the shear rate of 1 s−1 showed that this viscosity had the smallest value in the group of patients with HES 200/0.5 as a transfusion fluid (p<0.001).
Abstract: p16 gene was transferred into human erythroleukemia cell line K562 that had been subjected to p16 deletion. The changes of biophysical behavior of K562 cells after gene transfer were studied with the micropipette technique. The micropipette data were analyzed with a standard solid viscoelastic model. In comparison to untransfected control K562 cells and the cells transfected with an empty vector, the p16‐transfected K562 cells showed an increase in the elastic element K1 , which is inversely proportional to the maximum deformation over a long period of time, whereas the viscous element μ and the other elastic element K2 showed…no significant difference. The results indicate that K562 cells became more rigid after p16 transfer. The p16‐transfected K562 cells also had a higher surface charge density. This study contributes to our knowledge about the suppression effect of p16 gene on tumor cell migration and about its use in gene therapy.
Abstract: Previous studies demonstrated that naftidrofuryl increased the cutaneous and intramuscular tissue pO2 at rest. The presented open prospective pilot study is to investigate in apparently healthy subjects (n=12) whether naftidrofuryl also affects pO2 in situations of muscular stress. The pO2 is measured with a flexible probe in the anterior tibial muscle during treadmill exercise prior to and after one‐week treatment with 100 mg of naftidrofuryl administered three times a day. The intake of naftidrofuryl proved to significantly affect the intramuscular partial oxygen pressure. With 38.6±22.9 mmHg, the pO2 is at rest already significantly (p<0.05), i.e.,…approx. 40% higher after one week of intake than before treatment (27.3±12.1 mmHg). This higher pO2 level is maintained during exercise. The higher the physical load, the larger the difference in pO2 . While under naftidrofuryl treatment the measured pO2 values exhibit the tendency to increase during the first exercise phase (at a load of 3 km/h and a gradient 5 degree), the differences are even significant under higher physical stress (at 5 km/h and a gradient of 10 degree). With 33.9±12.0 mmHg the mean minimum pO2 determined at the higher load level still ranges above the basal pO2 measured before the start of naftidrofuryl treatment.
Abstract: The clinical benefit brought about by HMG‐CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) may not entirely be due to their lipid‐lowering effect. Further investigation is necessary in order to determine the significance of ancillary effects to the clinical benefit of statin treatment. We studied 27 polygenic hypercholesterolaemia (PHC) patients before and 3 and 6 months after fluvastatin treatment. A control group of 38 normal, sex and age matched, subjects were also studied. The following parameters were measured: haematimetry, serum lipids and general biochemistry, apo‐A/B and lipoproteins, fibrinogen, blood filterability, red blood cell aggregation, blood and plasma viscosity. PHC patients showed…lower blood filterability (16.00±0.99 vs 19.90±2.90 μl/s), higher plasma fibrinogen (274.8±41.5 vs 241.6±43.2 mg/dl), increased erythrocyte aggregation at low shear stress (8.10±1.15 vs 7.19±1.29) and increased plasma viscosity (1.26±0.06 vs 1.23±0.05 mPa.s). Notable lipid changes after 6 months fluvastatin treatment were not accompanied by measurable changes in the haemorheological alterations of the PHC patients.
Abstract: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) have a high incidence of cardiovascular events. We measured whole blood viscosity at high (94.5 s−1 ) and low (0.1 s−1 ) shear rate, hematocrit, fibrinogen, and platelet hemostatic function (PTA‐100® ) at 7–8 p.m. and 7–8 a.m. in 8 controls and 13 patients, once with the established nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) treatment and once without. OSA patients had a higher plasma viscosity (1.37±0.11 vs. 1.19±0.11 mPa.s in the evening, p<0.05) and fibrinogen (2.61±0.49 vs. 2.11±0.29 g/l, p<0.05) than controls, without diurnal difference, and similar values with or without NCPAP.…Whole blood viscosity and hematocrit were similar in controls and patients before and after a night with or without NCPAP. Platelet activity was significantly higher in the morning than in the evening in controls and patients with or without NCPAP. We conclude that blood viscosity and platelet activity are similar in controls and patients with OSA on a long‐term treatment with NCPAP, which is not worsened by a single night without NCPAP. The increase of plasma viscosity and fibrinogen in OSA patients as well as the general increase of platelet aggregation in the morning may contribute to the increased incidence of cardiovascular events.
Abstract: The aim of our study was to evaluate endothelium‐dependent dilatation induced by an ACE‐inhibitor, calcium antagonist and β blocker in patients suffering from heart failure (NYHA class II and III). We studied 34 patients (19M, 15F, mean age 76.96±8.82) in pharmacological wash‐out for at least one week, divided into 3 groups: Group A (15 patients, 9M and 6F) taking ramipril (5 mg/die); Group B (10 patients, 6M and 4F) taking amlodipine (10 mg/die), Group C: (9 patients, 4M and 5F) taking carvedilole (25 mg/die). The groups were homologous for NYHA class and instrumental echographic parameters (mean EF=22.5±6.7 and mean sAPP…38.4±8.7). At the beginning and after 3 weeks of therapy, we performed a clinical and instrumental assessment; we studied endothelial function by determination of L‐arginine and L‐citrulline (amino acids of the nitric oxide metabolic pathway), the L‐citrulline/L‐arginine ratio (an index of NOS activity) and VCAM‐1 (endothelial dysfunction index); haemorheological parameters (blood viscosity, plasma fibrinogen and erythrocyte morphology); coagulative/fibrinolytic parameters (PT, aPTT, fibrinogen and PAI‐1). The results show that L‐citrulline and L‐arginine increase, while VCAM‐1 decreases. The L‐citrulline/L‐arginine ratio increases in a statistically significant way. This trend is maintained in each group. These results demonstrate that the drugs used induce an improvement of endothelium‐dependent dilatation. In addition, there is progressive haemorheological and fibrinolytic improvement, with a reduction of PAI‐1 and blood viscosity.
Abstract: The sensitivity of the ultrasonic interferometry method (Echo‐Cell) to changes in red blood cell (RBC) aggregation was investigated in comparison to the Regulest erythroaggregometry known as a reference method. In experiments where different concentrations of dextrans of 40 or 70 kD molecular weights were added to normal RBCs, the Echo‐Cell was proved as sensitive as erythroaggregometry. A comparative study using RBC samples from normal and diabetic subjects showed that the Echo‐Cell was much more sensitive when aggregation was measured in diluted than undiluted plasma. The sensitivity of Echo‐Cell measurements in diluted plasma was similar to that of erythroaggregometry. Further analysis…revealed that RBC aggregation was underestimated by Echo‐Cell when measurements were made in undiluted plasma containing high fibrinogen levels, implying that in that case an elevated plasma viscosity might indirectly affect the sensitivity of the Echo‐Cell. The low sensitivity of the Echo‐Cell to detect an abnormal RBC aggregation when suspensions were prepared in undiluted plasma, is likely related to a relatively high shear stress exerted on RBC aggregates by the suspending medium. In conclusion, the sensitivity of the Echo‐Cell to detect abnormal changes in RBC aggregation can be optimized by diluting the plasma.