Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 14, issue 1
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: The successful management of marked biochemical and hemorheological abnormalities in preterm neonates, especially in babies with perinatal asphyxia, requires a thorough understanding of the causes and consequences of such changes. We divided 41 preterm newborns (< 37 weeks of gestational age) into two groups–with and without perinatal asphyxia–to study biochemical, hematological and hemorheological variables (plasma viscosity and internal erythrocyte viscosity measured with a Harkness type capillary viscosimeter, osmolality, anion gap, osmol gap) in blood samples from the umbilical artery and vein. The results were analyzed with comparison of the t-test, correlation and regression studies. The most noteworthy findings were: 1.)…similar values in biochemical, hematological and hemorheological variables in both vessels and in both groups, and 2.) evidence of a similar relation between plasma protein concentration and plasma viscosity in umbilical artery and vein in preterm neonates with acute fetal distress.
Abstract: We investigated the effect of intravenous 2mM Troxerutine and 10mM α-Tocopherol (Vitamin E) and their combination on erythrocyte aggregation and deformability, blood viscosity and leukocyte adhesivity in rats made mildly diabetic (fasting glycemia: 10mM vs 6mM in controls; HbA1 c: 6.5% vs 3% in controls) by a low dose of streptozotocin (35mg/kg) injected via the saphenous vein. In diabetic rats, as compared to controls, erythrocyte aggregation and blood viscosity were dramatically increased (disaggregation shear stress: 5.2 ± 0.4 dynes/cm2 vs 3.7 ± 0.3 dynes/cm2 in controls), whereas erythrocyte deformability and mesenteric blood flow were sharply decreased. Moreover, leukocyte…adhesivity was significantly increased. In diabetic rats, the combination of Troxerutine and Tocopherol improved all the above cited parameters. These data show that mild diabetes in rats results in many hemorheological disorders that can be largely corrected by Troxerutine and α-Tocopherol.
Keywords: Blood flow, Red Blood Cell aggregation, White Blood Cell adhesivity, Troxerutine, Diabetes, Vitamin E
Abstract: 202 human fetuses underwent percutaneous fetal blood sampling under ultrasound guidance for investigation of fetal structural abnormalities, red cell alloimmunization, or fetal infection. 75 were subsequently found not to be affected by the condition for which they were being investigated, or to have any other discernable abnormality. The blood samples from these 75 ‘normal fetuses’ were used to derive gestational reference ranges for fetal whole blood viscosity (over a range of shear rates), plasma viscosity, total plasma proteins and fibrinogen. The results show that fetal haematocrit is the major determinant of fetal whole blood viscosity, that fetal plasma proteins…and hence plasma viscosity are at very low levels compared to the adult and that all fetal haemorheological parameters rise significantly with gestation.
Abstract: Trained sportsmen have low values of blood viscosity (ηb). In this study we tested the functional consequences of this reduction of ηb in 34 sportsmen submitted to a 25 min progressively increasing submaximal work load. A low resting ηb (measured at high shear rate with the MT90 viscometer) was associated to a lower increase in blood lactate during exercise (correlation of ηb with: maximal lactate value: r=0.357 p < 0.05; area under the curve: r=0.490 p < 0.01). Subjects with ηb > 2.4 mPa.s (with this method) had higher lactate increase (p < 0.01) and a deeper decrease in blood…bicarbonate (p < 0.001). RBC rigidity (‘Tk’ index) is increased proportionaly to lactate when lactate increases above 4 mmol.l−1 . Another group of 21 professional footballers was studied during a maximal triangular work load until VO2 max. In this group there was a correlation between maximal lactate response during the test and RBC aggregation (r=0.705 p < 0.005). These results suggest that low whole blood viscosity at rest either (a) prevents from excessive lactate increase in this kind of exercise protocol; (b) or is a marker of trained persons characterized by metabolic/circulatory adaptations protecting against exercise-induced hyperlactatemia. In these experimental conditions lower RBC aggregation (within the normal range) seems to be also associated with fitness and lower lactate increase.
Abstract: Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation was determined in elderly subjects (mean age over 80 years) by using two ultrasonic (interferometry and backscattering) methods and compared with RBC aggregation measured in young healthy volunteers (mean age below 30 years). The two time parameters (tm and Δt) given by the interferometry method and the backscattering coefficient χ given by the backscattering method have been shown to be connected to the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and to the RBC aggregate size respectively. The results show that elderly subjects display hemorheological parameters significantly altered compared to those of young healthy volunteers. Long term treatment of…elderly patients (3 months) with a RBC anti-aggregant (dihydroergo cryptine) demonstrates an improvement of hemorheological parameters (Δt: + 10 %; χ coefficient: −29 %), in spite of a moderate increase of fibrinogenemia, and corroborates the favourable effects of the compound previously found in animals.