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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) is used as a texturizing agent and a thickener in food and pharmaceutical products. There are no publications describing the addition of TSP to intra-articular injection formulations for arthritis. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the rheology and efficacy of the formulation of TSP with hyaluronic acid (HA) as a new material for injection for arthritis. METHODS: We investigated the viscoelastic properties of formulations of HA and TSP as potential lubricants for arthritis, and tested the improvement of right/left paw weight distribution in monosodium iodoacetate-induced arthritis in the…rat. RESULTS: HA formulations with 3% and 4% TSP showed improved rheological characteristics and were protected against changes induced by heat sterilization. Addition of TSP also reduced pain in the arthritis model, as evidenced by normalization of the distribution of paw weight. CONCLUSIONS: TSP is a potential material as a substitute for HA or in combination with HA for intra-articular injection for arthritis.
Abstract: The hemodynamics of the microcirculation reflect system properties of the involved components. The blood itself is a complex suspension of water, small and large molecules and different cell types. Under most conditions, its rheologic properties are dominated by the different behaviour of fluid and cellular compartments. When perfused through small-bore tubes or vessels, the suspension exhibits specific emergent properties. The Fahraeus-effect and the Fahreaeus-Lindqvist-effect result from the interaction of cellular particles with each other and with the vessel wall. Additional phenomena occur in vascular networks due to the uneven distribution of blood cells and blood plasma at divergent microvascular bifurcations.…In order to understand microvascular hemodynamics in vivo but also in artificial microfluidic geometries it is thus necessary to recognize the pertinent system properties on the level of the blood, the microvessels and the microvascular networks or perfused structures.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The rheology of shear thickening fluids is well characterized for many physical applications, however the literature surrounding biologically or cryobiologically compatible shear thickening fluids is less well understood. OBJECTIVE: This study examined fluids consisting of corn-derived hydroxyethyl starch with a variety of sugars and cryoprotectants to characterize their shear-rate viscosity relationship. The objective was to establish if cryobiologically relevant materials could be used to afford biologics protection through shear-thickening. RESULTS: Fluids consisting of 50% hydroxyethyl starch by weight exhibited shear thickening with a variety of cryoprotectants. Lowering the temperature of the fluid both reduced critical…shear rates and enhanced thickening magnitude. Starch derived from corn, wheat, and rice all exhibited non-Newtonian shear-dependent viscosity behaviour at 50% by weight in water. Between the starch sources however, the shear-rate viscosity relationship varied widely, with wheat-derived starch shear thinning, and the remaining starches forming shear thickening fluids. Different starch sources had different baseline viscosities, critical shear rates, and rates of viscosity increase. CONCLUSIONS: This study established that shear thickening is compatible with cryobiologically relevant agents, particularly so at lower temperatures. This forms the basis for harnessing these phenomena in biological processes such as cryopreservation.
vol. Pre-press, no. Pre-press, pp. 1-12, 2019
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are used in therapy, often by injection into the blood. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the adhesive and migratory properties of MSC from umbilical cords (UCMSC), bone marrow (BMMSC) or trabecular bone (TBMSC), which might influence delivery to injured tissue. METHODS: MSC were perfused through glass capillaries coated with matrix proteins, collagen or fibronectin, or albumin. Adherent cells were counted microscopically and their spreading analysed over time. MSC migration through 8 μm pore filters coated with the same proteins was analysed. RESULTS: The number of MSC adhering to collagen was…greater than fibronectin, decreased as wall shear rate increased from 17 to 70 s−1 , and was in the order UCMSC>BMMSC>TBMSC. Conversely, spreading was more effective on fibronectin and was in the order BMMSC>TBMSC≥UCMSC. Migration was promoted by coating the lower surface of filters with either matrix protein, with UCMSC migrating more efficiently than BMMSC. CONCLUSIONS: MSC show origin-dependent variations in their efficiency of capture from flow and subsequent spreading or ability to migrate on matrix proteins. UCMSC showed most efficient capture from flow, which was followed by less spreading, but more rapid migration. These responses might be associated with more effective delivery from the circulation into damaged tissue.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Ultrastructural investigations of the endothelial glycocalyx reveal a layer adjacent to the cell surface with a structure consistent with the primary ultrafilter of vascular walls. Theory predicts this layer can be no greater than 200–300 nm thick, a result to be reconciled with observations that red cells and large macromolecules are excluded from a region 1 micrometer or more from the cell membrane. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether this apparent inconsistency might be accounted for by a model of steady state water and protein transport through a glycocalyx bi-layer formed by a porous outer layer in series with a more selective inner layer.…METHODS: Expressions for coupled water and albumin fluxes through the two layers were used to describe steady state ultra-filtration though the bi-layer model. RESULTS: Albumin accumulates at the interface between the porous layer and the selective inner layer. The osmotic pressure of accumulated albumin significantly modifies the observed permeability properties of the microvessel wall by an effective unstirred layer effect. CONCLUSIONS: The model places significant constraints on the outer layer permeability properties . The only outer layer properties that are consistent with measured steady state filtration rates and models of red cell flux through microvessels are an albumin permeability coefficient and hydraulic conductivity more than an order of magnitude larger than the those of the inner layer.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The endothelial glycocalyx plays a pivotal role in regulating blood flow, filtering blood components, sensing and transducing mechanical signals. These functions are intimately related to its dynamics at the molecular level. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research is to establish the relationship between the functions of the endothelial glycocalyx and its dynamics at the molecular level. METHODS: To establish such a relationship, large-scale molecular dynamics simulations were undertaken to mimic the dynamics of the glycocalyx and its components in the presence of flow shear stresses. RESULTS: First, motions of the glycocalyx core protein…and the pertinent subdomains were scrutinised. Three-directional movements of the glycocalyx core protein were observed, although the flow was imposed only in the x direction. Such an observation contributes to understanding the glycocalyx redistribution as reported in experiments. Unsynchronised motion of the core protein subdomains was also spotted, which provides an alternative explanation of macroscopic phenomena. Moreover, the dynamics, root-mean-square-deviations and conformational changes of the sugar chains were investigated. Based on the findings, an alternative force transmission pathway, the role of sugar chains, and potential influence on signalling transduction pathway were proposed and discussed. CONCLUSIONS: This study relates the functions of the glycocalyx with its microscopic dynamics, which fills a knowledge gap about the links between different scales.