Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging - Volume Pre-press, issue Pre-press
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Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging (BSI) is a multidisciplinary journal devoted to the timely publication of basic and applied research that uses spectroscopic and imaging techniques in different areas of life science including biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, bionanotechnology, environmental science, food science, pharmaceutical science, physiology and medicine. Scientists are encouraged to submit their work for publication in the form of original articles, brief communications, rapid communications, reviews and mini-reviews.
The journal is dedicated to providing a single forum for experts in spectroscopy and imaging as applied to biomedical problems, and also for life scientists who use these powerful methods for advancing their research work. BSI aims to promote communication, understanding and synergy across the diverse disciplines that rely on spectroscopy and imaging. It also encourages the submission of articles describing development of new devices and technologies, based on spectroscopy and imaging methods, for application in diverse areas including medicine, biomedical science, biomaterials science, environmental science, pharmaceutical science, proteomics, genomics, metabolomics, microbiology, biotechnology, genetic engineering, nanotechnology, etc.
Abstract: Background and objective: Multiple factors including chemical composition and microstructure influence relaxivity of tissue water in vivo . We have quantified T1 in the human white mater (WM) together with diffusion tensor imaging to study a possible relationship between water T1, diffusional fractional anisotropy (FA) and fibre-to-field angle. Methods: An inversion recovery (IR) pulse sequence with 6 inversion times for T1 and a multi-band diffusion tensor sequence with 60 diffusion sensitizing gradient directions for FA and the fibre-to-field angle θ (between the principal direction of diffusion and B0 ) were used at 3 Tesla in 40 healthy…subjects. T1 was assessed using the method previously applied to anisotropy of coherence lifetime to provide a heuristic demonstration as a surface plot of T1 as a function of FA and the angle θ . Results: Our data show that in the WM voxels with FA > 0.3 T1 becomes longer (i.e. 1/T1 = R1 slower) when fibre-to-field angle is 50–60°, approximating the magic angle of 54.7°. The longer T1 around the magic angle was found in a number of WM tracts independent of anatomy. S0 signal intensity, computed from IR fits, mirrored that of T1 being greater in the WM voxels when the fibre-to-field angle was 50–60°. Conclusions: The current data point to fibre-to-field-angle dependent T1 relaxation in WM as an indication of effects of microstructure on the longitudinal relaxation of water.
Keywords: Longitudinal relaxation time, relaxation anisotropy, white matter
Abstract: Silica coated magnetite particles (Fe3 O4 @SiO2 ) functionalized with gold Fe3 O4 @SiO2 + Au), or gold plus poly (vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) (Fe3 O4 @SiO2 + Au + PVP) were synthesized. Their structural and magnetic properties were studied using a combination of experimental techniques including electron microscopy (EM), superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetrometry, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The saturation magnetization (MS ) of particles functionalized with gold and gold plus PVP were found to be 67.24 emu/g and 65.78 emu/g respectively. Both functionalized ensembles maintained a large percentage (78–80%) of their MS values compared to pristine magnetite.…The coercivity (HC ) for pristine magnetite was 227.25 Gauss compared to 200.00 Gauss for Fe3 O4 @SiO2 + Au and 228.57 Gauss for Fe3 O4 @SiO2 + Au + PVP. Furthermore, these magnetic particles, being biologically compatible and resistant to oxidation, were functionalized with an antibody designed to target A431 oral cancer cells. The result demonstrates high specificity of binding compared to non-functionalized particles, attributable to a favorable interaction between gold and the antibody making them excellent candidates for applications like bio-separation and imaging.
Abstract: Background: Hypomagnetic fields can disrupts the normal functioning of living organisms by a mechanism thought to involve oxidative stress. In erythrocytes, oxidative stress can inter alia lead to changes to hemoglobin content and to hemolysis. Objective: To study the effects of hypomagnetism on the state of rat erythrocytes in vitro . Methods: Rat erythrocytes were exposed to an attenuated magnetic field (AMF) or Earth’s magnetic field (EMF), in the presence of tert -butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as inducer of oxidative stress. Determinations: total hemoglobin (and its three forms – oxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin, and hemichrome) released from erythrocytes,…spectral data (500–700 nm); oxygen radical concentrations, electron paramagnetic resonance. Results: AMF and EMF exposed erythrocytes were compared. After 4 h incubation at high TBHP concentrations (>700 μ M), AMF exposed erythrocytes released significantly more (p < 0.05 ) hemoglobin (Hb), mostly as methemoglobin (metHb). Conversely, after 24 h incubation at low TBHP concentrations (⩽350 μ M), EMF exposed erythrocytes released significantly more (p < 0.001 ) hemoglobin, with metHb as a significant proportion of the total Hb. Erythrocytes exposed to AMF generated more radicals than those exposed to the EMF. Conclusion: Under particular conditions of oxidative stress, hypomagnetic fields can disrupt the functional state of erythrocytes and promote cell death; an additive effect is implicated.
Keywords: Erythrocytes, haemoglobin, hypomagnetic field, reactive oxygen species, cell death