Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging - Volume 9, issue 3-4
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Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging (BSI) is a multidisciplinary journal devoted to the timely publication of basic and applied research that uses spectroscopic and imaging techniques in different areas of life science including biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, bionanotechnology, environmental science, food science, pharmaceutical science, physiology and medicine. Scientists are encouraged to submit their work for publication in the form of original articles, brief communications, rapid communications, reviews and mini-reviews.
The journal is dedicated to providing a single forum for experts in spectroscopy and imaging as applied to biomedical problems, and also for life scientists who use these powerful methods for advancing their research work. BSI aims to promote communication, understanding and synergy across the diverse disciplines that rely on spectroscopy and imaging. It also encourages the submission of articles describing development of new devices and technologies, based on spectroscopy and imaging methods, for application in diverse areas including medicine, biomedical science, biomaterials science, environmental science, pharmaceutical science, proteomics, genomics, metabolomics, microbiology, biotechnology, genetic engineering, nanotechnology, etc.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The objective of this phantom study is to demonstrate the potential of utilizing mid-energy x-rays for in-line phase-sensitive breast cancer imaging by phantom studies. METHODS: The midenergy (50–80 kV) in-line phase sensitive imaging prototype was used to acquire images of the contrast-detail mammography (CDMAM) phantom, an ACR accreditation phantom, and an acrylic edge phantom. The low-dose mid-energy phase-sensitive images were acquired at 60 kV with a radiation dose of 0.9 mGy, while the high-energy phase-sensitive images were acquired at 90 kV with a radiation dose of 1.2 mGy. The Phase-Attenuation Duality (PAD) principle for soft tissue was used for the phase retrieval.…A blind observer study was conducted and paired-sample T-test were performed to compare the mean differences in the two imaging systems. RESULTS: The correct detection ratio for the CDMAM phantom for phase-contrast images acquired by the low-dose mid-energy system was 56.91%, whereas images acquired by the high-energy system correctly revealed only 40.97% of discs. The correct detection ratios were 57.88% and 43.41% for phase-retrieved images acquired by the low-dose mid-energy and high-energy imaging systems, respectively. The reading scores for all three groups of objects in the ACR phantom were higher for the mid energy imaging system as compared to the high-energy system for both phase-contrast and phase-retrieved images. The calculated edge enhancement index (EEI) from the acrylic edge phantom image for the mid-energy system was higher than that calculated for the high-energy imaging system. The quantitative analyses showed a higher Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) as well as a higher Figure of Merit (FOM) in images acquired by the low-dose mid-energy imaging system. CONCLUSION: The PAD based retrieval method can be applied in mid-energy system without remarkably affecting the image quality, and in fact, it improves the lesion detectability with a patient dose saving of 25%.
Abstract: In pandemic times, like the one we are witnessing for COVID-19, the discussion about new efficient and rapid techniques for diagnosis of diseases is more evident. In this mini-review, we present to the virological scientific community the potential of attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy as a diagnosis technique. Herein, we explain the operation of this technique, as well as its advantages over standard methods. In addition, we also present the multivariate analysis tools that can be used to extract useful information from the data towards classification purposes. Tools such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Successive Projections Algorithm (SPA),…Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Linear and Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (LDA and QDA) are covered, including examples of published studies. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy are emphasized, as well as future prospects in this field of study that is only growing. One of the main aims of this paper is to encourage the scientific community to explore the potential of this spectroscopic tool to detect changes in biological samples such as those caused by the presence of viruses.
Abstract: Background: There is considerable interest in developing faster, less invasive, and more objective techniques to diagnose type 2 diabetes mellits (T2DM). Optical techniques like Raman spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) are efficient, precise, low-cost, portable, and easy to handle, which seem to overcome most of the present difficulties of actual tests for T2DM diagnosis. However, the use of both Raman spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been limited for T2DM diagnosis or follow-up. Objective: To gather information regarding the use of Raman spectroscopy and SERS to evaluate the spectra of biofluids (blood components, saliva, and urine)…and tissues (skin) as an early diagnostic tool or follow-up for T2DM. Results: Skin and biofluids provide a great amount of information that can be analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and SERS. These optical techniques are excellent for clinical applications and can differentiate people with T2DM from healthy individuals, predict complications arising from T2DM (chronic kidney disease), and might be used to monitor glucose (glycemic control). Conclusion: Raman spectroscopy and SERS are good optical techniques for the diagnosis of T2DM in which sample preparation is not necessary or very simple, non-destructive, non-invasive, relatively fast to acquire, and low-cost.
Abstract: Force Spectroscopy (FS), which is one of the operating modes of Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) technique proven to be useful in many biological and medical applications, such as cancer cells recognition. Currently, many scientific institutions carry on research on the Young’s modulus of individual cancer cells in order to detect the disease at an early stage of its development. As a result of the growing interest in the use of force spectroscopy to study cells’ mechanic, this review summarizes new applications of this method to study changes in the physical and chemical properties of cells under the influence of external…stimuli of different origins. The work is divided into four research areas, in which the use of AFM force spectroscopy was used to explain phenomena occurring at the early stages of intracellular organization changes. Research areas presented in this manuscript focuses on detailed description of the effect of manifold external stimuli on cells, such as: (i) cell aging, (ii) active ingredients used in the cosmetics industry to improve skin condition, (iii) nanoparticles used in biomedicine, and (iv) micro- and nano-structures of topography on the surface of substrates used for cell cultures. This review is based on a critical analysis of the latest literature reports (seven of which were created with Author’s contribution) describing the use of force spectroscopy as an effective tool to study the mechanical properties of living cells.
Keywords: Atomic Force Microscope, force spectroscopy, SWCNT, nanoparticles, cells aging, micropatterns
Abstract: Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy can be applied as an effective and non-invasive spectroscopic method for analyzing samples with unpaired electrons. EPR is suitable for the quantification of radical species, assessment of redox chemical reaction mechanisms in foods, evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of food, as well as for the analysis of food quality, stability, and shelf life. It can be employed for evaluating and monitoring the drug release processes, in vitro and in vivo . EPR can be employed for the direct detection of free radical metabolites, and the evaluation of drug release mechanisms from biodegradable polymers; it…can be employed for analyzing the drug antioxidant effects. Additionally, spatial resolution can be achieved through EPR-imaging. EPR spectroscopy and imaging have shown diverse applications in food, biomedical and pharmaceutical fields, and also more applications are predictable to emerge in the future. This review highlights recent advances and important challenges related to the application of EPR in food, biomedical and pharmaceutical analysis and assessment.
Keywords: EPR, electron paramagnetic resonance, food analysis, biomedical applications, pharmaceutical applications, drug delivery, clinical applications