Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging - Volume 4, issue 4
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Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging (BSI) is a multidisciplinary journal devoted to the timely publication of basic and applied research that uses spectroscopic and imaging techniques in different areas of life science including biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, bionanotechnology, environmental science, food science, pharmaceutical science, physiology and medicine. Scientists are encouraged to submit their work for publication in the form of original articles, brief communications, rapid communications, reviews and mini-reviews.
The journal is dedicated to providing a single forum for experts in spectroscopy and imaging as applied to biomedical problems, and also for life scientists who use these powerful methods for advancing their research work. BSI aims to promote communication, understanding and synergy across the diverse disciplines that rely on spectroscopy and imaging. It also encourages the submission of articles describing development of new devices and technologies, based on spectroscopy and imaging methods, for application in diverse areas including medicine, biomedical science, biomaterials science, environmental science, pharmaceutical science, proteomics, genomics, metabolomics, microbiology, biotechnology, genetic engineering, nanotechnology, etc.
Abstract: In this paper, we describe the application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to study properties of biomolecules in different environments with particular emphasis on stabilization of biomolecules during drying. The use of different FTIR sampling accessories as well as various data analysis methods is described to study lipids and proteins in vitro as well as in vivo . Examples are presented of FTIR studies on: lipid phase behavior during drying, structural changes of late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins during drying, properties of biomolecules in dried desiccation-tolerant moss tissues, and diffusion of sugars in heart valve tissues for dry…preservation. It is shown how conformational and phase changes of lipids and proteins during drying can be studied by monitoring changes in characteristic infrared bands. LEA proteins display drastic changes in conformation upon drying, and increase the glass transition temperature of sugar glasses. FTIR microspectroscopy studies on tissues of the moss Physcomitrella patens are presented in relation to acquisition of desiccation tolerance in this specimen. In addition, it is shown how attenuated total reflection FTIR can be used to study diffusion of sugars in heart valve tissues for dry preservation of heart valves used as implants.
Keywords: Biological scaffolds, desiccation tolerance, diffusion, FTIR, membrane phase behavior, protein secondary structure, protein stability, tissue engineering
Abstract: An intriguing feature of infrared (IR) spectroscopy is its capacity to accurately identify and characterize disease morphologies. It enables identification of molecular alterations in wide variety of physiological samples, including but not limited to isolated cellular specimens, body fluid samples and tissue biopsies without the need of using any external agents. Therefore, we aimed to summarize the recent findings on the uses of Fourier Transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopy in assessing the molecular alterations associated with neurodegenerative diseases, a specific group of diseases characterized by progressive and irreversible loss of neuronal cells. In this review, we focus on two specific disease…situations, Multiple Sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease, mainly due to the urgent need for identification of a reliable biomarker for their diagnosis. Body fluids, indeed, are very suitable specimens to be used in diagnosis, since they can be easily collected from patients and can accurately reflect biochemical changes. Precise identification of alterations in the molecular profile of body fluid samples from control and affected samples can enable us to identify biomarkers in the diagnosis of aforementioned diseases, and possibly as a crucial clue for developing therapeutical strategies. In this regard, we would like to present current advances in the use of FTIR spectroscopy along with various analysis tools, such as hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA). Finally, we present the application of these techniques in Multiple Sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease.
Abstract: Background: Surgical models of bone injury-induced joint damage provide relevant insights into the biological pathways involved in the response to injury and development of subsequent degenerative joint conditions. Objective: To determine metabolic changes acutely following a bone injury to the rabbit knee in order to reveal key metabolites potentially associated with the chronic phase post-injury leading to post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Methods: Nine skeletally mature rabbits underwent surgery to create a repeatable, isolated intra-articular bone injury with intra-articular bleeding, without destabilizing the knee. Plasma samples were collected pre-operatively (baseline) and at 3 weeks post-injury. The samples were…analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based metabolic profiling approach and multivariate statistical analysis. Results: Metabolic profiling found clear separation between pre-surgical and post-injury rabbits. The predictive ability of the statistical model reached 75%. The levels of twelve metabolites (adenine, choline, glutamine, glycine, pyroglutamate, ornithine, 1-methylhistidine, creatinine, acetate, glucose, taurine and glutamate) significantly changed in plasma samples collected from the rabbits 3 weeks post-injury compared to their baseline levels. Conclusions: Our study indicates that metabolomics may have important applications in the detection of early systemic changes following a localized joint injury, possibly enabling early intervention and preventing progression to more serious joint degeneration.
Abstract: This paper presents an image processing algorithm for the diagnosis of ulcers, which is a lesion occurring in the digestive tract, based on endoscopic images. In general, ulcers are visually distinguishable from normal tissues owing to the defective state in the mucosal membrane, cornea or skin tissue. Based on this characteristic, we used different colors to distinguish between ulcer and normal tissues in the proposed method. First, image luminance was adjusted to ensure similar luminance distribution values through a preprocessing stage in which the captured images were normalized to achieve uniform intensity distribution for each channel. Then, we selected distinctive…elements for the detection of ulcer tissues with distinct image-associated chromatic characteristics. Because image luminance can affect detection even after preprocessing, we selected elements that were distinguishable from normal tissues based on the distribution of values displayed by ulcers from both RGB and HSV bands. Moreover, most of the digestive tract ulcers occur on the mucosal surface and tend to cluster together to form a specific zone. This implies that a detected ulcer pixel is more likely to be surrounded by ulcer tissue than normal tissue. Therefore, we used the intensity of each image channel as an additional detection element and performed ulcerative zone detection. An additional advantage of the zone detection process is the exclusion of errors caused by image-emanated random impulse noise. For performance evaluation of the image processing algorithm, we used fifty sheets of endoscopic images and conducted ulcer detection experiments. Finally, we validated our algorithm as showing 91.05% sensitivity and 98.64% specificity.
Abstract: Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanomaterials (UCNMs) have been considered as a new generation of fluorescent materials for bioimaging due to their superior physicochemical features, such as large anti-Stokes shifts, low autofluorescence background, low toxicity and high penetration depth. However, tedious surface modifications have to be performed to stabilize UCNMs in hydrophilic environments, which is important for biomedical applications. The tutorial review offers a general overview of various strategies to transfer UCNMs from hydrophobic to hydrophilic for good bioapplications. More specifically, recent progress in designing UCNMs for multimodal bioimaging (such as upconversion luminescence (UCL) imaging, magnetic imaging (MRI), X-ray computed tomography (CT) and…single-photon emission tomography (SPECT)) and multifunctional applications (drug release, photodynamic therapy and photothermal therapy) are presented in detail.