Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging - Volume 4, issue 1
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Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging (BSI) is a multidisciplinary journal devoted to the timely publication of basic and applied research that uses spectroscopic and imaging techniques in different areas of life science including biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, bionanotechnology, environmental science, food science, pharmaceutical science, physiology and medicine. Scientists are encouraged to submit their work for publication in the form of original articles, brief communications, rapid communications, reviews and mini-reviews.
The journal is dedicated to providing a single forum for experts in spectroscopy and imaging as applied to biomedical problems, and also for life scientists who use these powerful methods for advancing their research work. BSI aims to promote communication, understanding and synergy across the diverse disciplines that rely on spectroscopy and imaging. It also encourages the submission of articles describing development of new devices and technologies, based on spectroscopy and imaging methods, for application in diverse areas including medicine, biomedical science, biomaterials science, environmental science, pharmaceutical science, proteomics, genomics, metabolomics, microbiology, biotechnology, genetic engineering, nanotechnology, etc.
Abstract: Circular dichroism (CD) is widely used in protein science to elucidate protein secondary structure, to monitor protein folding, to detect conformational changes, and to measure protein-ligand interactions. This paper describes the development of protein CD, experimentally and theoretically. The application of far-UV CD to secondary structure determination is reviewed. Advances in understanding protein side-chain and prosthetic group CD are surveyed.
Keywords: Circular dichroism, history, protein secondary structure, aromatic side chains, excitons, myoglobin, hemoglobin, rhodopsin, bacteriorhodopsin, channelrhodopsin
Abstract: Biomedical optical imaging and optical spectroscopy are rapidly emerging as strong contenders for non-invasive optical biopsy. In biomedical imaging, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an established imaging modality for non-contact depth-resolved three-dimensional imaging with micrometer scale resolution. OCT provides label-free micro-structural morphological information of the tissue. Raman spectroscopy is a complementary tool for obtaining molecular-specific information for diagnosis. This article provides a brief overview of the underlying principles of OCT and Raman spectroscopy, their instrumentation with representative latest developments in cancer diagnosis.
Keywords: Optical coherence tomography, Raman spectroscopy, cancer diagnosis
Abstract: The advent of FTIR microscopic spectrometers with focal plane array detectors enabled rapid image acquisition with diffraction limited lateral resolution. The field of view depends on the magnification and the detector size. FTIR images of large samples can be collected in the so called mosaic mode by stitching individual images together. If the mosaic is composed of hundreds of images, the total acquisition time and the data size will increase considerably. One computational and two optical options are compared to reduce both acquisition time and data size. First, the 2× field expansion optic increases the measured sample area fourfold. Second,…using a 4× objective instead of the standard 15× objective increases the area covered by a single image by a factor of 11. Third, pixel binning averages neighboring pixels at the expense of lateral resolution. All options are demonstrated in a case study of a thin section of laryngeal carcinoma encompassing normal tissue, inflammation, connective tissue, dysplasia, carcinoma and blood. Data analysis is described using the toolbox hyperSpec operating under the R environment and complemented by parallel computing functions. A classification model that was trained with low magnification data in the range from 1200 to 1800 cm−1 gave similar results for higher magnification data. Restrictions occurred for microscopic features smaller than the detector pixel size and for biomarkers below 1200 cm−1 due to signal attenuation of the 4× objective lenses. FTIR imaging mosaic strategies of other groups and the emerging use of quantum cascade lasers for IR imaging are discussed.
Keywords: Infrared spectroscopy, infrared microscopy, tissue diagnosis, chemometric data analysis
Abstract: An acute sludge was unexpectedly produced in the gallbladder of a woman with acute myocarditis, liver dysfunction and acute cholecystitis. This study aimed to determine whether the morphological features and chemical composition of this acute gallbladder sludge were different from common chronic gallstones. This acute gallbladder sludge and 12 patients' chronic gallstones were analyzed using histopathological examination, SEM, FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence analysis. The chronic gallstones from the 12 patients were classified into calcium bilirubinate (CaBR), cholesterol (Chol) and CaBR–Chol mixed stones. The acute gallbladder sludge was not consistent with chronic gallstones but had developed within the prior 3…months of medical care, which only comprised CaBR and protein/biomaterials. Moreover, none of the long-term transition elements including Pb, Hg, Au, Sn, Sr, Rb, Br, Se and Cr had accumulated in the acute gallbladder sludge but they had found in chronic CaBR gallstone, however, the elements Hf, Co and Ti were present in the acute gallbladder sludge. The levels of Zn, Cu, Mn and Ca were lower in acute gallbladder sludge than in chronic gallstones. Our results indicate that this acute gallbladder sludge comprised large amounts of protein/biomaterials with fewer CaBR aggregates and had different element contents as compared with common chronic gallstones.
Keywords: Acute gallbladder sludge, chronic gallstone, SEM, FTIR, EDXRF, trace element
Abstract: BACKGROUND: A novel polymer-shelled contrast agent (CA) with multimodal imaging and target specific potential was developed recently and tested for its acoustical properties using different in-vitro setups. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the elimination of three types of the novel polymer-shelled CA, one unmodified and two shell modified versions, in rats. METHODS: The blood elimination time was estimated by measuring the image intensity, from ultrasound images of the common carotid artery, over time after a bolus injection of the three types of the novel CA. The commercially available CA SonoVue was used as a…reference. The subcellular localization of the three CAs was investigated using transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: The ultrasound measurements indicated a blood half-life of 17–85 s for the different types of the novel CA, which was significant longer than the blood half-life time for SonoVue. Additionally, CAs were exclusively found in the circulatory system, either taken up by, or found in the vicinity of macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the commercially available CA SonoVue, the blood circulation times for the three types of the novel polymer-shelled CA were prolonged. Moreover, macrophages were suggested to be responsible for the elimination of the CA.
Abstract: Chemical mapping of molecules adsorbed on plasmonic nanostructures is a powerful technique for biomolecular sensing, surface chemistry and plasmon–matter interactions. DC-sputtered gold nanoisland (GNI) substrates have attracted significant attention recently due to its excellent plasmonic enhancement, structural stability and simple fabrication. We provide multimodal characterization of GNI morphological evolution by correlating data obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) extinction spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) microscopy. A rigorous determination of the SERS enhancement factor for benzenethiol self-assembled monolayers on evolving GNI substrates is presented. Rapid statistical analysis shows excellent large-area SERS uniformity by hyperspectral Raman…imaging systems based on active-illumination which enables parsimonious sampling of only 2.7% area of the field of view, greatly improving sampling efficiency.