Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging - Volume 3, issue 2
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Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging (BSI) is a multidisciplinary journal devoted to the timely publication of basic and applied research that uses spectroscopic and imaging techniques in different areas of life science including biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, bionanotechnology, environmental science, food science, pharmaceutical science, physiology and medicine. Scientists are encouraged to submit their work for publication in the form of original articles, brief communications, rapid communications, reviews and mini-reviews.
The journal is dedicated to providing a single forum for experts in spectroscopy and imaging as applied to biomedical problems, and also for life scientists who use these powerful methods for advancing their research work. BSI aims to promote communication, understanding and synergy across the diverse disciplines that rely on spectroscopy and imaging. It also encourages the submission of articles describing development of new devices and technologies, based on spectroscopy and imaging methods, for application in diverse areas including medicine, biomedical science, biomaterials science, environmental science, pharmaceutical science, proteomics, genomics, metabolomics, microbiology, biotechnology, genetic engineering, nanotechnology, etc.
Abstract: Most biological functions are carried out in supramolecular assemblies. As a result of their slow reorientation in solution, these assemblies have been resistant to the widely employed solution NMR approaches. The development of solid-state NMR to first of all overcome the correlation time problem and then obtain informative high-resolution spectra of proteins in supramolecular assemblies, such as virus particles and membranes, is described here. High-resolution solid-state NMR is deeply intertwined with the history of NMR, and the seminal paper was published in 1948. Although the general principles were understood by the end of the 1950s, it has taken more than…fifty years for instrumentation and experimental methods to become equal to the technical problems presented by the biological assemblies of greatest interest. It is now possible to obtain atomic resolution structures of viral coat proteins in virus particles and membrane proteins in phospholipid bilayers by oriented sample solid-state NMR methods. The development of this aspect of the field of solid-state NMR is summarized in this review article.
Abstract: Advances in peptide biochemistry and mass spectrometry as well as in peptide synthesis and NMR have permitted the isolation, identification and structure determination of numerous products from arachnid venoms, previously unexplored due to technical limitations. The chemical composition in arachnid venoms is diverse ranging from low molecular weight organic compounds such acylpolyamines to complex disulfide-rich peptides. A special group of spider and scorpion peptides are those amphipathic and positively charged structures with cytolytic properties. Their secondary structure is mostly α-helical, and they insert into the lipid cell membrane of eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells leading to the formation of pores and…subsequently depolarizing the cell membrane of such cells. The mode of action and insertion of antimicrobial peptides from arachnid venoms represent an interesting source of natural molecules for clinical research. In this review, solid-state NMR studies to examine them will be described.
Abstract: This review provides an overview of the basic principles and key technical issues of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and tip enhanced Raman scattering (TERS). After a brief introduction to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption and the basic principles behind Raman scattering and related techniques such as resonance Raman scattering and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), SERS and TERS are extensively covered, including the latest progress on the fundamental understanding of the enhancement mechanism and the development of novel SERS substrates. Relevant microscopy and imaging methods are also discussed, along with several examples of molecular systems studied. An attempt is…also made to discuss the enhancement mechanism from both time-independent and time-dependent views of Raman scattering at the molecular level. Interesting issues related to hot spots in SERS and single molecule SERS detection are also addressed. Some perspectives on the current status and challenges for TERS are given.
Abstract: We report a potential application of a portable fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for fast prostatic calculi diagnosis. A portable Raman analyzer with a fiber-optic probe was first used to identify and differentiate the mineral components of prostate stones. The study indicates that three types of stones, hydroxyapatite (HA) stone, calcium oxalate dehydrate (COD) stone and mixed stone including HA, calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and COD, were directly detected from 15 patients with prostatic calculi in a short time. The present study reveals that this portable fiber-optic Raman spectroscopic technique was an easy and fast “real-time” tool to differentiate the mineral components…in prostatic calculi.
Keywords: Prostate, calculi, fiber-optic Raman, mineral components
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Autofluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB) has been utilized over the past decade, proving to be a new powerful tool for the detection and localization of premalignant and malignant lesions of the airways. AFB is, however, characterized by low specificity due to the high rate of false positive findings (FPFs) observed, caused mainly by inflammations which often produce abnormal fluorescence. According to several clinical trials, the percentage of the FPFs is about 30%. OBJECTIVE: In this paper we present a computerized image analysis tool for the classification of lesions suspicious for malignancy, in order to help physicians to distinguish between true…and false positive findings, and thus enhance the diagnostic value of AFB. METHODS: For the development of the image analysis tool, several colour and texture analysis methods, feature selection techniques and pattern classification models were utilized and combined. 715 AFB images from 11 specific cases have been used; 6 of these cases corresponded to malignancy, whereas the other 5 corresponded to FPFs. RESULTS: The presented system achieved to correctly classify all the cases studied, demonstrating correct classification rate as high as 95.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The preliminary results suggest that the proposed system may improve the diagnostic accuracy of AFB.