Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging - Volume 1, issue 2
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Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging (BSI) is a multidisciplinary journal devoted to the timely publication of basic and applied research that uses spectroscopic and imaging techniques in different areas of life science including biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, bionanotechnology, environmental science, food science, pharmaceutical science, physiology and medicine. Scientists are encouraged to submit their work for publication in the form of original articles, brief communications, rapid communications, reviews and mini-reviews.
The journal is dedicated to providing a single forum for experts in spectroscopy and imaging as applied to biomedical problems, and also for life scientists who use these powerful methods for advancing their research work. BSI aims to promote communication, understanding and synergy across the diverse disciplines that rely on spectroscopy and imaging. It also encourages the submission of articles describing development of new devices and technologies, based on spectroscopy and imaging methods, for application in diverse areas including medicine, biomedical science, biomaterials science, environmental science, pharmaceutical science, proteomics, genomics, metabolomics, microbiology, biotechnology, genetic engineering, nanotechnology, etc.
Abstract: EPR spectroscopy is the most straightforward-to-use technique for studying free radicals and other paramagnetic species and has therefore established itself in biomedical research and for clinical applications. EPR found its applications in oximetry, where this technique allows repeated measurements of oxygen in tissues – also in vivo and in combination with imaging techniques. The direct detection of paramagnetic species like transition metal ions by EPR allows elucidation of their specific roles in disease, for example how copper ions might be involved in the formation of amyloid- or amyloid-like fibrils in neurodegenerative diseases. For investigations on the structures of this protein…aggregates, but also of other proteins or protein complexes with medical relevance the technique of site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) – the site-specific introduction of paramagnetic reporter groups into proteins or nucleic acids – is nowadays frequently used, especially in cases where other structural techniques are not applicable. Moreover, by direct detection of free radicals – also in combination with spin trapping methods, or application of SDSL, EPR spectroscopy can be also used for diagnostic purposes, e.g. in cancer diagnostics. This review gives an up-to-date overview about how EPR spectroscopy is currently used in biomedical research and clinical applications, with special emphasis on biomedical applications of SDSL EPR.
Keywords: Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, biomedicine, site-directed spin labeling, spin trapping, oximetry, diagnosis, prognosis, infection, structural biology, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, free radicals, EPR imaging, in vivo EPR
Abstract: Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) imaging was used to generate quantitative elemental images of brain sections of mice with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions. In previous studies, an external calibration and regional image analysis strategy was developed and applied to serial sections at the level of the midbrain (including the substantia nigra, SN) of one 6-OHDA mouse. In this work, this strategy was validated by measuring sections at the striatum level in 18 6-OHDA-lesioned mice. 12 of these animals were treated with 6 mg kg−1 L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, LD). The first estimate of the variance of in situ…metal concentrations between animals amounting to 24% for Fe, 18% for Cu, 19% for Zn and 13% for Mn (RSD) in the cortex are provided. Concentrations of Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn were approximately identical in LD treated animals and controls. However, significantly lower concentrations of Fe (−7%) in the ventral and of Cu (−7%) in the dorsal striatum of the lesioned compared to the healthy hemisphere of all animals were detected. In controls, but not in LD treated animals, higher Cu concentrations were detected in the periventricular zone. The ratios of ventricular to parenchymal Cu can be considered as a measure of Cu efflux. The side difference of these values was significantly reduced by LD. Similar responses to LD countervailing at the healthy and 6-OHDA-lesioned sides have been described for other parameters such as dopamine receptors and transporters.
Abstract: Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) has recently been applied to evaluation of bladder function during voiding by transcutaneously monitoring changes in the concentration of oxygenated (O2 Hb) and de-oxygenated (HHb) haemoglobin within the detrusor muscle during voiding. This prospective cohort study evaluated the consistency of bladder anatomy relative to the suprapubic location of the NIRS sensor patch during simultaneous invasive urodynamic pressure flow studies (UDS) and non-invasive NIRS monitoring in female subjects evaluated for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Pelvic ultrasound measurements of the bladder were performed after bladder emptying, at 150 ml, 300 ml and maximum capacity in supine, sitting…and upright positions; simultaneous NIRS data at 10 Hz were collected during UDS. Ultrasound measurements in 24 subjects (14 with and 14 without hysterectomy) showed that a NIRS sensor patch positioned on the abdomen 2 cm superior to the symphysis remained directly over the anterior wall of the bladder throughout the voiding cycle, with no significant difference in bladder measurements relative to the abdominal wall with or without hysterectomy. At higher bladder volumes the majority of bladder expansion appeared to involve the dome. Conclusions: With bladder volumes of 150 cc or greater the anterior wall is within the field of view of a NIRS sensor on the abdominal skin, and prior hysterectomy does not compromise NIRS monitoring of the detrusor.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to use the synchrotron-based SR-IMS imaging technique to study heating effect on protein molecular imaging of yellow canola seed tissues. The heating methods included the control (raw), autoclaving at 120°C for 1 h and dry roasting at 120°C for 1 h. The spectral images were carried out from outside to inside of the yellow seed tissues under functional groups of amide I at ca. 1650 cm−1 and amide II at ca. 1550 cm−1 . The results showed protein amide I and II spectral features were affected by heating methods. The heat processing induced…changes in protein secondary structure profile. Different processing had different impact on protein secondary structure profile. The spectral images of the yellow seed tissues were different among the control, autoclaved and dry heated treatments. Future study is needed to confirm such changes with a large number of seed samples and compare the response to different heat-related processing between yellow canola seed (with thin seed coat) and dark-brown canola seed (with thick seed coat).
Keywords: Synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy, molecular imaging, protein amides
Abstract: The use of Raman microscopy (or Raman chemical imaging) has grown enormously in the last few decades and it has become a valuable tool for a range of applications. Raman microscopy presents several unique features such as ability to provide chemical and spatial information with resolution of a few micrometers in a rapid and non-destructive fashion, requiring little or no sample preparation and the ability to probe aqueous materials. Instrumentation, data processing methods and computer technology advances have made a renaissance of Raman microscopy and the number of applications has continuously growing. Furthermore, other spectroscopic derivatives aimed to improve Raman…sensitivity have been recently applied to imaging: coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS), stimulated Raman spectroscopy (SRS), surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) and imaging with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). These methods provide a significant improvement in sensitivity in relation to traditional spontaneous Raman microscopy, allowing faster data acquisition and therefore the study of in-vitro, ex-vivo and in-vivo dynamic systems in an unprecedented manner. This paper will discuss recent papers applying the techniques above mentioned and discuss trends for future Raman chemical imaging.
Keywords: Raman chemical imaging, Raman microscopy, Raman imaging