Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume Pre-press, issue Pre-press
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Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The most common cause of coronary artery disease (CAD) is vascular damage with the cholesterol built-up and other materials on the inner arterial wall, known as atherosclerosis. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to investigate the effect of stenosis on the hemodynamics in the four suspected coronary artery disease patients. Computer tomography (CT) data was acquired from patients of suspected coronary artery disease to reconstruct left coronary artery. METHODS: The 3D computational simulation was carried out with four patient-specific models with area stenosis >50% located at the left anterior descending (LAD) and left circumflex (LCX) branches.…RESULTS: The pressure, velocity and wall shear stress were calculated during the cardiac cycle. A significant pressure drop across the stenosis and increase in the velocity at the stenosis were observed at LAD and LCX branches. An increase in the wall shear stress in the region of stenosis also observed with the prevalence of the recirculation zone at the post stenosis region which results in the formation of stenosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis provides an insight into the progression of stenosis and wall rupture, thus improving our understanding the flow behavior patient-specific realistic artery models.
Keywords: Coronary artery, non Newtonian flow, stenosis, CFD, computer tomography
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Various biomaterials/technologies have been tested for treatment of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration (IDD). Only few non-surgical options exist. OBJECTIVE: Assessment of efficacy and safety of the hyaluronic acid derivative hydrogel HYADD® 4-G in IDD using a well-established rabbit annular puncture model. METHODS: Rabbits were punctured at two IVDs to induce IDD. Thirty days after, IVDs were injected with HYADD® 4-G or saline. IVD hydration, height, appearance and tissue organization were assessed by radiographs, MRI and histopathology. Safety of HYADD® 4-G injection was evaluated in non-punctured IVDs. RESULTS: HYADD® 4-G injection restored disc height…to over 75% of the pre-punctured disc, saline injections led to 50% of initial disc height. Compared to saline, HYADD® 4-G treatment resulted in improved water retention as revealed by MRI quantification. 83.3% of HYADD® 4-G injected discs had normal appearance and reached grade I of the Pfirrmann scale. Regarding tissue organization and cellularity, HYADD® 4-G treatment resulted in significantly lower IDD scores than saline (p < 0.01). HYADD® 4-G injected into healthy IVDs did not induce inflammation or foreign body reactions. CONCLUSIONS: Intra-discal HYADD® 4-G injection is safe and has therapeutic benefits: IDD could be limited through restoration of disc height and hydration and maintenance of normal IVD tissue organization.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The chemical properties of the oral environment have an appreciable influence on the in vivo degradation of CAD/CAM materials. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of organic acids, heptane and ethanol (the food-simulating liquids) on CAD/CAM restorative materials. METHODS: Four CAD/CAM materials were selected: (1) 3M ESPE LAVA Ultimate, (2) VITA Enamic, (3) IPS e.max CAD, (4) VITA Suprinity. Seven different samples were fabricated in 15 × 4 × 1.2 mm dimensions from each material (n = 7, N = 140). The materials were conditioned for 7 days at 37…°C as follows: artificial saliva, 75% ethanol, heptane, 0.02 N citric acid, 0.02 N lactic acid in aqueous solution and were tested to obtain flexural strength, surface micro-hardness and wear characteristics. After conditioning, the flexural strength values were assessed using a universal testing machine (1 mm/min crosshead speed) and the fractured samples were used for determination of Vickers hardness values using a digital micro- hardness tester (100 g/10 s) and determination of wear using a chewing simulator. Two factor analysis of variance with interaction model and Tukey’s post hoc test were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The highest mechanical property values were found for IPS e.max and VITA Suprinity and the lowest values were found for LAVA Ultimate. Organic acids negatively affected the mechanical properties of e.max CAD and Suprinity. Ethanol and heptane were more effective on LAVA Ultimate and Enamic. There were significant differences among groups (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The mechanical properties of CAD/CAM restorative materials are influenced by food-simulating liquids.
Abstract: Brain tumors are considered to be a leading cause of cancer death among young people. Early diagnosis is thus essential for treatment. The brain segmentation process is still challenging due to complexity and variation of the tumor structure, intensity similarity between tumor tissues and normal brain tissues. In this paper, a fully automated and reliable brain tumor segmentation system is proposed. This system is able to detect range of slices from a volume that is likely to contain tumor in MRI images. An iterated k-means algorithm is used for the segmentation process in conjunction with a cluster validity index to…select the optimal number of clusters. The proposed approach is evaluated using simulated and real MRI of human brain from multimodal brain tumor image segmentation benchmark (BRATS) organized by MICCAI 2012 challenge. Our results achieved average for Dice overlap and Jaccard index for complete tumor region of 91.96% and 98.31% respectively when testing a set of 77 volumes. This shows the robustness of the new technique for clinical routine use.
Keywords: Brain tumor, MRI, image segmentation, k-means clustering, validity index
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The scaffold for head and neck reconstruction needs mechanical strength to maintain specific forms. Hydroxyapatite (HA) enhances the mechanical strength of hydrogel and is routinely used for cartilage regeneration. However, there is a demand for hydroxyapatite that controls chondrogenic cell behavior. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to regulate HA morphology through a hydrothermal process using organic acid and enhance chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation using shaped-regulated HA. METHODS: HA was synthesized from dodecanedioic acid (DD:HA) and oleic acid (OA:HA) by a hydrothermal method and then coated onto glass plates. Surface properties of the samples were compared by…various techniques. Surface roughness and contact angles were calculated. Proliferation and differentiation of chondrogenic cells were measured by MTT assays and Alcian blue staining, respectively, after various incubation periods. RESULTS: The morphological structures of DD:HA and OA:HA were different; however, the crystallinity and chemical structures were similar. Surface roughness and hydrophilic behavior were higher on DD:HA. DD:HA enhanced chondrogenic cell proliferation over time. The differentiation of ATDC5 cells was also increased on the DD:HA surface compared with those in other groups. CONCLUSIONS: DD:HA enhanced cell viability to a greater extent than OA:HA did, indicating its excellent potential as an inorganic material compatible with chondrocyte regeneration.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adhesion strength of orthodontic attachments to enamel should be within optimal range to resist occlusal forces and to allow debonding without enamel damage. OBJECTIVE: The present study compared the effect of non-thermal plasma (NTP) and conventional surface treatment on the adhesion strength of orthodontic bracket to enamel. METHODS: A total of 100 premolar teeth were allocated into 5 groups according to the bonding procedure followed; Group 1 (Etch, prime and composite adhesive); Group 2 (Prime and composite adhesive); Group 3 (Glass ionomer cement); Group 4 (NTP, prime and composite adhesive) and Group 5 (NTP and…glass ionomer cement). Ten specimens in each group were subjected to artificial aging and remaining ten specimens served as baseline specimens. Adhesion strength values were recorded after debonding and bond failure types were scored. Water contact angles of the NTP treated and untreated enamel surface were measured. RESULTS: Group 1 specimen demonstrated highest bond strength at baseline (21.5 ± 3.01) and thermocycling (15.8 ± 2.87) and the least values were in Group 2 specimens at baseline (3.9 ± 1.01) and thermocycling (1.6 ± 0.7). Among the experimental (NTP) groups, group 4 specimens exhibited high adhesion strength at baseline (10.2 ± 1.76) and after thermocycling (9.8 ± 2.15) compared to group 5 specimens at baseline (10.1 ± 1.05) and thermocycling (6.5 ± 2.19). The water contact angle on untreated enamel surface was 53.1° ± 2.1° as compared to 1.4° ± 0.7° in treated surface. CONCLUSION: Non-thermal plasma (NTP) treatment in conjunction with composite adhesives demonstrated clinically acceptable adhesion strength and was well within the optimal range (7–14 MPa) for enamel bonding.
Abstract: In this work, a non-local dual-phase-lag (NL DPL) model is introduced to accommodate the effects of thermomass and size-dependent thermophysical properties at nanoscale heat transport. Heat transfer at nanoscale is essentially non local and quite different from that at the micro -or macro scale. To illustrate the non local effect, a bi-layered structure is considered during magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) treatment which is used successfully in prostate, liver, and breast tumors and the effect of size-dependent characteristic lengths is discussed in tumor and normal region of tissue. The problem is solved by using the finite difference scheme in space coordinate…and Legendre wavelet Galerkin approach in time coordinate with the Dirichlet, Neumann and Robin boundary conditions. The effect of boundary conditions, characteristic lengths, phase lag parameters and nanomaterial parameters is discussed in tumor and healthy tissue domain and the results are presented graphically. This study is expected to be helpful for modeling of bioheat transfer equation at nano-scale, and may be beneficial to design of nano-sized and multi-layered devices for heat transfer.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used to solubilize freeze-dried chitosan (CS) formulations to form injectable implants for tissue repair. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the in vitro performance of the formulations depends on the type of PRP preparation used to solubilize CS. METHODS: Formulations containing 1% (w/v) CS with varying degrees of deacetylation (DDA 80.5–84.8%) and number average molar mass (M n 32–55 kDa), 1% (w/v) trehalose and 42.2 mM calcium chloride were freeze-dried. Seven different PRP preparations were used to solubilize the formulations. Controls were recalcified PRP. RESULTS: CS solubilization was achieved…with all PRP preparations. CS-PRP formulations were less runny than their corresponding PRP controls. All CS-PRP formulations had a clotting time below 9 minutes, assessed by thromboelastography, while the leukocyte-rich PRP controls took longer to coagulate (>32 min), and the leukocyte-reduced PRP controls did not coagulate in this dynamic assay. In glass culture tubes, all PRP controls clotted, expressed serum and retracted (43–82% clot mass lost) significantly more than CS-PRP clots (no mass lost). CS dispersion was homogenous within CS-PRP clots. CONCLUSIONS: In vitro performance of the CS-PRP formulations was comparable for all types of PRPs assessed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Ceramic crown that fires the layering porcelain on zirconia corping is starting to be used due to aesthetic requirements. However, many ceramics are used, but wear characteristics are often unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to investigate the wear of human enamel by porcelains, and determine the influence of porcelain hardness, surface roughness and crystal of porcelain on the enamel wear. METHODS: Enamel specimens were prepared from extracted human molar teeth. Porcelain specimens were prepared from Deguceram Gold, Vita Omega 900, and Cercon Ceram Kiss. Enamel wear volume was calculated and the porcelain wear depth,…surface roughness and Vickers hardness was measured. Moreover, the observation of a crystal by scanning electron microscope and the crystal by X-ray diffraction were identified. RESULTS: Omega 900 showed the smallest enamel wear volume and porcelain wear depth. The Vickers hardnesses of Omega 900 and Cercon Ceram Kiss were almost identical. Leucite was detected from Deguceram Gold and Omega 900, and Silica and Silicon Nitride were detected from Cercon Ceram Kiss. CONCLUSIONS: The enamel wear is influenced not by the hardness of the porcelain but by the surface roughness, the size and shape of the crystal.
Keywords: Wear, human enamel, porcelain, Vickers hardness, surface roughness