For implementing autonomous rehabilitation exercises for upper limb hemiplegic patients, interfaces and a rehabilitation scenario that allow lateral and bilateral motions in a rehabilitation exercise robot are proposed.
The proposed method measures the motion information generated from the unaffected part and projects it to an affected part in which the affected part expresses motions of the unaffected part.
Both the accelerometer and gyro data were merged for estimating the motion information of the unaffected part. Also, HDR and complementary filters were applied to improve measurement errors in a data merging process.
For verifying the proposed method, a device, which is similar to a human body joint, was fabricated. Then, the angular values estimated by using an inertial sensor and the encoder values from the device were compared. In addition, a camera analysis was used to verify the proposed rehabilitation scenario by applying the rehabilitation interface proposed in this study to an exo-skeleton robot arm.
It is possible to apply the method proposed in this study to the control variables in different upper limb rehabilitation exercise robots. Thus, it is expected that patient centered active lateral/bilateral rehabilitation exercises can be performed through this interface method.
Erol D., Coordinated control of assistive robotic devices for activities of daily living tasks, IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 3, June 2008, pp. 278-285.
Zhang S., Probabilistic learning from incomplete data for recognition of activities of daily living in smart homes, IEEE Transactions On Information Technology in Biomedicine, Vol. 16, No. 3, May 2012, pp. 454-462.
Colombo R., , Pisano F., , Micera S., , Mazzone A., , Delconte C., , Carrozza M.C., , Dario P., and Minuco G., Robotic techniques for upper limb evaluation and rehabilitation of stroke patients, IEEE Transactions On Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, Vol. 13, No. 3, September 2005, pp. 311-323.
Culmer P.R., , Jackson A.E., , Makower S., , Richardson R., , Cozens J.A., , Levesley M.C., and Bhakta B.B., A control strategy for upper limb robotic rehabilitation with a dual robot system, IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, Vol. 15, No. 4, August 2010, pp. 575-585.
Sanchez R.J., , Liu J., , Rao S., , Shah P., , Smith R., , Rahman T., , Cramer S.C., , Bobrow J.E., and David Reinkensmeyer J., Automating arm movement training following severe stroke: functional exercises with quantitative, IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, Vol. 14, No. 3, September 2006, pp. 378-388.
Krebs H.I., , Member S., , Volpe B.T., , Williams D., , Celestino J., , Charles S.K., , Lynch D., and Hogan N., Robot-aided neurorehabilitation: a robot for wrist rehabilitation, IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, Vol. 15, No. 3, September 2007, pp. 327-335.
Colombo R., , Sterpi I., , Mazzone A., , Delconte C., , Minuco G., and Pisano F., Measuring changes of movement dynamics during robot-aided neurorehabilitation of stroke patients, IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, Vol. 18, No. 1, February 2010, pp. 75-85.
Duschau-Wicke A., , von Zitzewitz J., , Caprez A., , Lünenburger L., and Riener R., Path control: a method for patient-cooperative robot-aided gait rehabilitation, IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, Vol. 18, No. 1, February 2010, pp. 38-48.
Kim K.-J., , Kang M.-S., , Choi Y.-S., , Han J., and Han C., Conceptualization of an exoskeleton ContinuousPassive Motion (CPM) device using a link structure, 2011 IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics Rehab Week Zurich, ETH Zurich Science City, Switzerland, June 29-July 1, 2011.
Krebs H.I., , Hogan N., , Aisen M.L., and Volpe B.T., Robot-aided neurorehabilitation, IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering, Vol. 6, No. 1, March 1998, pp. 75-87.
Waller S.M., and Whitall J., Fine motor control in adults with and without chronic hemiparesis: baseline comparison to nondisabled adults, and effects, of bilateral arm training, Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol. 85, July 2004, pp. 1076-1083.
Chang J.-J., , Tung W.-L., , MS, Wu W.-L., , Huang M.-H., and Su F.-C., Effects of robot-aided bilateral force-induced isokinetic arm training combined with conventional rehabilitation on arm motor function in patients with chronic stroke, Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol. 88, October 2007, pp. 1332-1337.
Schuhfried O., , Kollmann C., and Paternostro-Sluga T., Excitability of chronic hemiparetic muscles: determination of chronaxie values and strength-duration curves and its implication in functional electrical stimulation, IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, Vol. 13, No. 1, March 2005, pp. 105-109.
Solana J., , Cáceres C., , a-Molina A.G., , Opisso E., , Roig T., , Tormos J.M., and Gómez E.J., Improving brain injury cognitive rehabilitation by personalized telerehabilitation services: guttmann neuropersonal trainer, IEEE Journal Of Biomedical and Health Informatics, Vol. 19, No. 1, January 2015, pp. 124-131.
Yu L., , Guo L., , Gu X., , Fu J., and Fang Q., LVQ neural network applied for upper limb motion recognition, Bioelectronics and Bioinformatics (ISBB), 2011 International Symposium on, 2011, pp. 151-154.
Kwakkel G., , Kollen B.J., and Prevo A.J.H., Probability of regaining dexterity in the flaccid upper limb impact of severity of paresis and time since onset in acute stroke, Epub, 7 Aug 2003, pp. 2181-2186.
Johnson M.J., , Machiel Van der Loos H.F., , Burgar C.G., , Shor P., and Leifer L.J., Experimental results using force-feedback cueing in robot-assisted stroke therapy, IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, Vol. 13, No. 3, September 2005, pp. 335-348.
Lang C.E., , Wagner J.M., , Edwards D.F., and Dromerick A.W., Upper extremity use in people with hemiparesis in the first few weeks after stroke, JNPT, Vol. 31, June 2007, pp. 56-63.
Luft A.R., , McCombe-Waller S., , Whitall J., , Forrester L.W., , Macko R., , Sorkin J.D., , Schulz J.B., , Goldberg A.P., and Hanley D.F., Repetitive bilateral arm training and motor cortex activation in chronic stroke, JAMA, Vol. 292, No. 15, October20, 2004, pp. 1853-1861.
Lewis G.N., and Perreault E.J., An assessment of robot-assisted bimanual movements on upper limb motor coordination following stroke, IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, Vol. 17, No. 6, December 2009, pp. 595-604.
Lum P.S., , Burgar C.G., and Shor P.C., Evidence for improved muscle activation patterns after retraining of reaching movements with the mime robotic system in subjects with post-stroke hemiparesis, IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, Vol. 12, No. 2, June 2004, pp. 186-194.
Adamovich S.V., , Fluet G.G., , Merians A.S., , Mathai A., and Qiu Q., Incorporating haptic effects into three-dimensionalvirtual environments to train the hemiparetic upper extremity, IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, Vol. 17, No. 5, October 2009, pp. 512-520.
Vasconcelos J.F., , Cardeira B., , Silvestre C., , Oliveira P., and Batista P., Discrete-time complementary filters for attitude and position estimation: design, Analysis and Experimental Validation, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol. 19, No. 1, January 2011, pp. 181-198.
Firoozi D., and Namvar M., Analysis of gyro noise in non-linear attitude estimation using a single vector measurement, IET Control Theory Appl, Vol. 6, No. 14, 2012, pp. 2226-2234.
Hua M.-D., , Ducard G., , Hamel T., , Mahony R., and Rudin K., Implementation of a nonlinear attitude estimator for aerial robotic vehicles, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol. 22, No. 1, January 2014, pp. 201-213.
Kim D., and M'loskey R.T., Spectral analysis of vibratory gyro noise, IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 13, No. 11, November 2013, pp. 4361-4374.
Vasconcelos J.F., , Silvestre C., , Oliveira P., , Batista P., and Cardeira B., Discrete time-varying attitude complementary filter, 2009 American Control Conference Hyatt Regency Riverfront, St. Louis, MO, USA, June 10-12, 2009, pp. 4056-4061.
Mahony R., , Member S., , Hamel T., and Pflimlin J.-M., Nonlinear complementary filters on the special orthogonal group, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, IEEE, Vol. 53, No. 5, June 2008, pp. 1203-1218.
Zhang Q., , Wan L., and Pang Y., Fault-tolerant GPS/DR integrated navigation system based on heuristic reduction of MEMS inertial measurement unit drift, Information Engineering and Computer Science, 2009. ICIECS 2009. International Conference, pp. 1-4.
Qian H., , Xia Q., , Liu B., , An D., and Peng X., Fuzzy heuristic reduction of gyro drift in gyrobased mobile robot tracking, Information Engineering and Computer Science, 2009. ICIECS 2009. International Conference, pp. 1-4.