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VEP-based brain-computer interfaces modulated by Golay complementary series for improving performance



The goal of a brain-computer interface (BCI) is to enable communication by pure brain activity without neural and muscle control. However, the practical use of BCIs is limited by low information transfer rate. Recently, code modulation visual evoked potential (c-VEP) based BCIs have exhibited great potential in establishing high-rate communication between the brain and the external world.


This study aims at exploring a more effective modulation code than the commonly used pseudorandom M sequence for c-VEP based BCIs (c-VEP BCIs) in order to increase the detection accuracy of stimulus targets and the resulting information transfer rate.


Golay complementary sequence pair is used for constructing the modulation code of c-VEP BCIs due to their superior autocorrelation property. The modulation code is created by concatenating a pair of Golay complementary sequences. Sixteen target stimuli are modulated by the Golay code and its time shift versions.


Through offline analysis on data recorded from seven subjects and online test on five subjects, the Golay code modulated BCI yielded higher detection accuracy and information transfer rate than those achieved by M sequence.


The Golay code modulated BCI demonstrates a high performance compared with the M sequence modulated systems, and it is applicable to persons with motor disabilities.



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