Affiliations: Department of Statistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
Corresponding author: Per Gösta Andersson, Department of Statistics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91, Stockholm, Sweden. E-mail:[email protected]
Abstract: This article explores the different ways in which auxiliary information can be put to use in calibrated weighting
adjustment under survey nonresponse. Information is often present at two levels, the population level and the sample
level. The many options available in executing the calibration derive from several factors: One is the order in which
the two sources of information enters into calibration, a choice of a bottom-up as opposed to a top-down approach.
Another is whether the calibration should be carried out sequentially in two steps, or in one single step with the
combined information. A third question is whether one can simplify the procedure, at no major loss of accuracy, by
transcribing individual population auxiliary data from the register to the sample units only. We make a systematic
list of the possibilities arising for calibration adjustment in this setting. An empirical study concludes the paper.
Keywords: Bottom-up, moon vector, star vector, top-down