To assess census coverage the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics - IBGE has been conducting a post enumeration survey - PES since 70's census. In 2010 the survey was conducted in a sample of enumeration areas in each of the 27 federation units, matching was performed for data from Census and PES and a reconciliation work was conducted on the unmatched housing units and persons. Finally, dual-system estimation was applied to estimate the 2010 Census net coverage, omission and erroneous inclusion. One of the biggest improvements of the 2010 Brazilian Census is the incorporation of new methodologies and technologies. Use of handheld devices in the 2010 Census and PES allowed improvement of quality and timeliness in the data collection process, and facilitated automatic matching of PES to the Census. An automatic matching step, based on the probabilistic linkage theory of Fellegi and Sunter, was added to the assisted matching and reconciliation already performed in the 2000 Census PES, making the three-step 2010 matching system. The paper gives an overview on the process and methods used to carry on the 2010 Brazilian Post Enumeration Survey, bringing key information on the preparation, data collection, sampling, matching and estimation. Results allow knowing the performance of the matching system in addition to 2010 Census coverage measuring as a hole.