Affiliations: Global Governance Programme, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute, Via Giovanni Boccaccio 121, Florence, 50133, Italy | E-mail: [email protected]
Corresponding author: Global Governance Programme, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute, Via Giovanni Boccaccio 121, Florence, 50133, Italy. E-mail: [email protected].
Note:  The article is based on the joint research of the author with Debora Valentina Malito and Nehal Bhuta for the co-edited Palgrave Handbook of Indicators in Global Governance, Debora Valentina Malito, Gaby Umbach, and Nehal Bhuta (eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62707-6, on the author’s analyses within the GlobalStat project and her work for the Enlightenment 2.0 programme of the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre.
Abstract: This article1 offers reflections on the use of data as evidence in 21st century policy-making. It discusses the concept of evidence-informed policy-making (EIPM) as well as the governance and knowledge effects of data as evidence. With this focus, it interlinks the analysis of statistics and politics. The paper first introduces the concept of EIPM and the impact of evidence use. Here it focusses on science and knowledge as resources in policy-making, on the institutionalisation of science advice and on the translation of information and knowledge into evidence. The second part of the article reflects on data as evidence. This part concentrates on abstract and concrete functions of data as governance tools in policy-making, on data as a robust form of evidence and on the effects of data on knowledge and governance. The third part highlights challenges for data as evidence in policy-making, among them, politicisation, transparency, and diversity as well as objectivity and contestation. Finally, the last part draws conclusions on the production and use of data as evidence in EIPM. Throughout the second part of the reflections, reference is made to Walter Radermacher’s 2019 matrix of actors and activities related to data, facts, and policy published in this journal.