Abstract: The aim of this review is to present some of the emerging evidence concerning the application of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) in knee rehabilitation and offer theoretical justification as to the efficacy of this novel treatment approach. Over the past two decades, numerous researchers have investigated the concept of electrical stimulation as a modality to prevent or retard disuse muscle atrophy associated with knee injury and pathology. Indeed a growing body of evidence would suggest that NMES offers a highly effective adjunctive therapy that can increase muscle strength, improve function and ultimately enhance patient outcomes. The primary muscle group stimulated has been the quadriceps femoris. Key topics that will be discussed will be the role of electrical stimulation in addressing arthrogenic muscle inhibition, the training load provided by electrical stimulation, the limitations of this training technique, the evidence for application of electrical stimulation in specific knee conditions and the overall clinical implications of this treatment approach. This review will identify the research literature on these topics, presenting some critical treatment requirements and suggested clinical implications for optimum treatment application.